الدراسات والبحوث

Using of Communication Technology and the  Future Role of  the State  of Qatar  in the  Distance Education

Researcher  : Mervat Rashad Ibrahim Mohamed

Abstract  :

The study aimed to identify the developmental and future role that Qatar plays in the field of distance education and communication technology, highlighting the scientific and research capabilities that the State of Qatar provides to the public, and ways to develop the scientific and educational aspects for the advancement of the state and study the problems that constitute an obstacle to the maximum benefit from communication and education technology  From distance and to identify the extent to which educational and research institutions in the State of Qatar benefit from communication technology. The study relied on the survey method. The study used an electronic questionnaire form and relied on a sample consisting of (400) single people. The study concluded that 59% of the study sample are highly satisfied with the efforts of the State of Qatar in  The field of distance education, while (27%) of them were satisfied with a medium degree, while (14%) of them came with a low degree, and it was found that (36%) of the study sample use educational content provided through modern communication technology, and a percentage (20%) of them are sometimes  What are they looking for on those contents.  distance

Introduction :

Distance Education is a process of separating the Learner, Teacher and Writers in the Educational Environment, and transferring the traditional Environment of Education from a University or School and others to a multi-geographically separate Environment, and it is a modern Phenomenon of Education that has developed with the rapid technological development in the World, and the aim of it is to give an educational opportunity and provide it to Students who cannot Obtaining it in traditional conditions and almost daily.

The Idea of Distance Education began in the late seventies by European and American Universities that sent various educational Materials to Students by mail, including Books, Recording Tapes, and Video Tapes to explain and teach the Materials, and in the same manner the Student used to deal with assignments and Lectures, with these Universities requiring students to they only come to the University for the final Exam date, for which the mark is calculated.

The Matter developed in the late eighties to become Communication between the Teacher and his Students through Television and Radio Stations, then with the advent of the Internet, at first E-mail became the means of Communication between the Student and the Teacher until the beginning of the new Century. And learning, discussion panels and direct Communication provided through specialized Websites and Programs.

And part of the Distance Education Open University Education, which is Education that promotes the Student in educating himself and pursuing his University Studies, either with the aim of obtaining a University degree or with the aim of obtaining a training Certificate in a Skill, which is an Education that is not bound by Walls, Chairs, fixed Buildings or Classrooms that require that In it, the Student is Face to Face with the Teacher as in traditional Universities, and the Learners bear the responsibility for their learning, and through the materials and educational means, and then the learning process is positive and active through the Learner at the rate that suits him and at times that suit him. In traditional University Education, the Teacher is the main point of contact with Students, and he is the predominant and decisive factor in their success or failure, and students must attend lessons within the educational Institution, and other restrictions that traditional University Education suffers from. Whereas, the Philosophy of Distance Education is mainly based on the principle of flexibility to increase enrollment and equality in Education, and for the service provider to find a set of Methods to provide opportunities for enrollment in Education.

In contrast to Distance Education, equality in Education and Rights is one of the Goals of Sustainable development that all Countries pursue in 2030 and Qatar has a reputation in this field, as Qatar supports distinguished people in the field of scientific Research from academic Researchers, graduate Students, Teachers and School Administrators, with the aim of promoting Research and producing To support the educational process and educational Research, hoping that all groups of Researchers from all over the Arab World and from various Arab Universities and scientific Research Institutions participate to enrich scientific Research in the educational field.

Despite the difficulties and obstacles with the Corona / Covid-19 pandemic,  , the Ministry of Education  in the State of Qatar, and with  His Excellency Sheikh Faisal bin Qasim Al-Thani were keen to implement their various programs in Electronic digital transformation and implement them remotely to encourage Researchers and Students from all countries of the Arab world in general and our beloved Country Qatar in particular to complete the path that Qatar started it.

 

The Study Problem :

Qatar has played a significant and tangible Role in supporting the educational process in general and Distance Education in particular, and despite the unjustified Gulf blockade, Qatar has become the first Arab and fourth in the World according to the quality index of University Education, thus registering an unprecedented number for any Arab Country in the Global, regional and Arab Ranking for Education in order to distinguish it. In the quality of Education and one of the most important reasons for Qatar’s success and progress in the educational process is its optimal use of Communication Technology.

Hence the problem of the study, which is what are the criteria for its use of Communication Technology and Qatar’s Future Role in Distance Education?

 

Previous Studies :

Chapter I

The First  topic:

 

Studies Dealing with Issues of Distance Education:

1-Reem Abdullah (2020) study ([1])entitled “The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in the Development of Research Writing Skills for Female Students of the E-Learning Diploma at Princess Noura Bint Abdul Rahman University and the Level of Satisfaction Toward it”

The study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the Blended Learning strategy in developing Research Writing Skills among Female Students of the Electronic Education diploma at Princess Noura Bint Abdul Rahman University and the level of Satisfaction towards the strategy, as an experimental Study was conducted that lasted for one Semester, the second Semester of the academic year 1440 AH, and the study sample was 22 Students The observation card was applied to them before the start of the Blended Learning, and after completing the learning process, the observation card and a measure of Satisfaction with the strategy used in the experiment were applied. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the strategy used in developing Research writing skills to a very large degree, and the study sample is highly satisfied with it, as the Blended Learning according to the experiment strategy contributed to increasing Communication and interaction and reducing pressures in the course.

2- Reem Naguib Zenati (2018) Study ([2])“The Use Of Social Media By High School Students And Its Reflection On Their Perception Of Education Issues In Egypt.”

In defining the study problem, the Researcher relied on the results of previous Studies, and based on her scientific observation of the increasing official and societal interest in Educational Issues, whether University Education, as strategic issues affecting the future of the state and its national security, as well as in light of current events related to the problems of Secondary Education sites, and what is related to the role of social Communication Their different types and methods of coverage of educational events and issues and their impact on Students ’perception of them. The Research problem is determined in monitoring and studying the Relationship between High School Students’ use of Social Media and Students’s perception of Education Issues and current events on the other hand. The strength of the relationship between exposure to Social Networks and between Awareness of Educational Issues in terms of demographic variables and patterns of exposure, interaction and discussion about the issues at hand. Social networking sites see the pages of the mother Use such as Facebook and Twitter, watching Videos on the YouTube Site, and the study proved that the vast majority of Students rely on Social Media sites to follow up on Education Issues, among the most important of these sites in order (Google-Facebook-YouTube) and forms of interaction and participation for Students are concentrated through these Websites. To express their opinions and enter into discussions with friends about the Education Issues at hand.

3 – The study of Khalil Ibrahim Al-Saadat (2018) ([3]) “The possibility of Using Distance Education In The Programs Of The Faculty Of Applied Studies And Community Service At King Faisal University in Al-Ahsa”

This Study aimed to survey the Opinions of a sample of Male and Female Students of the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King Faisal University in Al-Ahsa about the possibility of using Distance Education in the college’s Programs. The Sample of the study consisted of (105) Students at the College of Applied Studies and Community Service. The study tool was a Questionnaire, consisting of four paragraphs, and each paragraph consisted of ten Questions. Results showed The possibility of using Distance Education in the programs of the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King Faisal University. The results of the study showed that the use of Distance Education in the College’s Programs leads to developing the Skill of using the Computer and obtaining Information from Informational Networks, and that it will make the College’s Programs be flexible, and that it saves Teachers and Learners ’time and efforts as well as covering wide geographical Areas. The results showed that Women can choose what suits them from the courses without leaving their home if the means and Methods of Distance Education are available, and that Women will be able to know a lot of family, social and medical Information, and that the educated will be able to Address her Teacher remotely and discuss educational matters with her. The results also indicated the need for educational Aids and modern Education technologies, including Computers, the need for specialists and Technicians to operate these means and Devices, and the Kingdom’s Universities to cooperate in the process of financing Distance Education Programs, exempt mothers and housewives from tuition fees, and provide Distance Education Programs without Tuition fees and fully funded by the University. The results of the study did not reveal the existence of statistically significant differences in the total score of each axis between members of the study sample according to age, social status, presence of Children, Employment status, educational level, and Gender. The Researcher suggested the use of Distance Education in the Programs of the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King University Faisal in Al-Ahsa.

4 – Alya Reda Abdel-Azim (2018) study ([4]) “Application Of Distance Learning In Document And Archive Programs: The Electronic Archive Program With Open Learning”

The study aims to conceptualize the Mechanisms for preparing Distance Education Programs and withdraw these Mechanisms on the Document and archive specialization in order to know the extent of applying Distance Education to the Electronic Archive Program with Open Education, and then draw a proposal for the Application of Distance Education on the Electronic Archive Program in Open Education at Cairo University The descriptive and analytical approach will be followed in describing and analyzing the Electronic Archive Program with Open Education, with the aim of applying Distance Education to the Electronic Archive Program with Open Education.

5 – Iman Nour El-Din (2017) study ([5]) “The effectiveness of Traditional and Electronic Educational Communication Techniques: A Comparative Study Between Students Of Open Education, Formal Public And Private Education”

The study aims to monitor the Effectiveness of Educational Communication Techniques in achieving learning and teaching objectives in both the formal Education Environment in the Egyptian Public and private Universities compared to the Open Education Environment. It Aims to know the opinions of formal Education Students and Open Education regarding the teaching and learning Technologies they use and the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, As well as a comparison between Educational Communication Techniques used in formal public and private Education and Educational Communication Techniques applied in Open Education, and measuring the effectiveness of each of them in achieving their educational Goals. The study was based on the survey Methodology, and the Questionnaire was used as a Research tool by applying to 396 individual Students of the two Systems as Next: A sample of formal Education Students in public and private Universities numbering 198 individuals, a sample of Open Education Students, who number 198 individuals from the modern second year students who joined Open Education through the Coordination Office due to the Cancellation of affiliation directed at that time, and three Colleges were chosen from the two Systems, namely Commerce, College of Media, College of Arts, Department of English Language), where the selected sample includes a Holistic It has parallel Specializations in both formal and Open Education, which is consistent with the study objectives in terms of comparison between the two Systems, and the study ended with a set of results and the study concluded that the results of the field study showed a statistically significant relationship between the Educational System of the Student and the evaluation of the educational level (Regular – open) The results of the study showed that (127 singles), 64.1% of the study sample, use the Communication Technologies provided by the Regular University, while the results of the study showed that (100 individuals), 50.5% of the study sample, use the Communication Techniques provided by the University Center Cairo Open Education: By comparing the two Systems, it was proved that there is a statistically significant relationship between the Educational System and the Students’ use of the technologies provided by the educational System of the student for the benefit of the formal Education.

6 – The Study of Abdul Wahab Farid’s Hamsa (2017) ([6]) “Cloud Computing and E-learning – an Analytical Study”

After the development of the Infrastructure of the Internet and the Emergence of various versions of the Web – such as Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, there has been a great development in the Services provided over the Networks. Its features have emerged in the availability of large storage space and tremendous speeds for the Internet, in addition to the availability of a large number of Software that the Learner can use without the need to be running Programs Prepared on the device that the Learner uses, and this development has led to the emergence of what is known as cloud Computing, which relies on transferring the processing process and storage space of the Computer to servers and work platforms that are accessed via the Internet without restrictions related to a specific device or a specific location. Cloud Computing as a practical and ideal solution after providing the Infrastructure for the Internet in various parts of the World, and the connection matter became not an obstacle to touching the cloud, especially after the huge boom in the aspect of issuing smart phones, which always carries with it the characteristics of Internet Connection and the possibility of dealing with various Information and files on the Network On top of it is Multimedia and the Emergence of Cloud Computing Service in the Technology world helped to save, manage and organize data and files help her to save her work flow via the Internet, and the Cloud Computing Service in the field of Education will be a major tributary for E-learning, to give Students the opportunity to quickly access various Applications, Systems and Resources through the Internet, share files and Documents, exchange assignments and Projects among Students, and Perhaps the only challenge. What should be overcome is the comprehensive coverage of the express access to the Internet, so that Students can benefit from the Applications of this Technology.

7 – The study of Heba Muhammad Abdullatif (2017) ([7]) “The Interaction between an Electronic Course and a Multimedia Forum and its Impact on the Development of Learning Outcomes for Students of the General Diploma in Education Division of Distance Education”

The aim of the current Research is to develop the learning outcomes of Students of the General Diploma in Education Division of Distance Education through the production of a Multimedia forum in the Environment of Electronic Courses. The Quasi-experimental approach was used, and the Research sample consisted of (60) Students of the General Diploma in Education Division of Distance Education, and the Research Tools represented in the product Evaluation Card, cognitive Test, and trend scale were applied, and the results of the Research showed a positive impact of the forum Multimedia in the development of learning outcomes for Students of the General Diploma in Education Division of Distance Education.

 

a study Robinson, R., Molenda, M., & Rezabek ( 2016 )([8])

Real learning in online Education is possible through intended instructional strategies and appropriate teaching Techniques, but as an educational Methodology, barriers to Implementation still remain. We argue that real learning in online Education can be successfully supported when the Characteristics of Authentic Learning (a) are intentionally applied and (b) are supported by Research-Based Tools that facilitate the learning process of Students seamlessly. To meet this challenge, we have developed a Search-Based online application that supports Authentic learning. In this Article, the theoretical Foundations and experimental support of the tool are described, along with critical design decisions that support the proposed properties of the original Activities. The authors provide an overview of formative Research conducted during a four-year development process. Several case Studies conducted in Research-intensive Universities are presented to describe how Student Motivation, met cognition, and strategic Behaviors are facilitated through the tool and to encourage readers to apply similar Research-Based strategies in their own Real Learning contexts.

 

 

 

 

 

The Second Unit

 

Studies that Dealt with Communication Technology:

1 – Moataz Ahmed Abdel Fattah (2020) study ([9])Entitled “The Impact of Technological Developments in Supporting the Experiences of Local Media Projects on the Internet and their Ability to Compete with the Main News Sites

The study aimed to monitor the Role of technological developments in supporting the Experiences of local media projects on the Internet and their ability to compete with newspapers and major news sites, in an attempt to find out the extent to which these local media Experiences on the Internet benefit from available Communication and Information technology in the processes of managing the flow and production of news content, And comparing it to the general and major Newspapers that go beyond the Boundaries of the capital in terms of distribution and spread, and getting acquainted with the Economics of managing local news sites. Study sample: (“Wlad Al-Balad Foundation”, “Bawabat Al-Mandara” website, “Eastern Today” website, “Mansoura News” website, and “Al-Masry” Today, and “the seventh day”), a description of its Economic construction and methods of financing it, Identification of the impact of  Economic factors on the size of its work capacity, its preparation and training, monitoring of the ways in which work is conducted within these sites, and the reality of the professional work of the communicator in the sites Local news Stories in Egypt, and stand on his Communication and technological Skills in light of modern technological developments, and compare them with the Communicators in the governorates departments in the main sites It exceeds the limits of the capital in coverage and spread, in addition to studying a general audience of users of local sites to monitor the rate of public use of local media sites on the Internet, to identify the extent of their participation in the production of content in these sites, and to monitor the nature of user contributions, and to identify the challenges they face in producing Content. The study used the media survey method, the content analysis tool, the in-depth interview and the investigation newspaper, and the results of the analytical study showed that press news is issued by the introduction of editorial arts in the news sites under study, where the topics and issues raised are covered.

 

2 – Huda Kamel (2019) ([10])study Entitled “The Role of E-Learning in Classroom Management”

The current Research aims to identify the Techniques and forms of E-learning and to identify the concept of Classroom management and to know the Role of E-learning in Classroom management. The study used social Theory, which confirms that the Teacher will not succeed in his Classroom management unless his relationship with the School principal improves. The study also uses Parsons’s Theory, which emphasizes on The functions of the educational Institution and also used the Theory of Decision-Making. The results of the study concluded with the achievement of the two aforementioned goals.

3 – The study of Emotions Ibrahim Mohamed (2019) ([11]) Entitled “The use of Information Technology in Distance Education: a Case Study of the University of Khartoum, the Mechanism of Distance Study.”

The study aims to identify the extent of the use of Technologies in distance education, what are the negatives and positives, and to Identify the Role that Information Technology can play in the field of Distance Education, to highlight the Educational capabilities that can be provided to large numbers of individuals, and to study the problems that constitute an obstacle to The maximum benefit from Information Technology and the study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach and the case study approach, and the study concluded that the third millennium is called the component of modern Information and Communication Technology and has become the provision of wide services to access Information at any time and place and in the fastest time. Modern Technologies are about the role of the sole donor of Information, i.e. the Role of the planner or guide of the educational process, and in the Distance Education System, each Student can advance according to his level of study, which gives Students a greater opportunity to absorb their Lessons than the traditional System.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 – Sally Ahmed (2018) study ([12]) Entitled “The Role of Social Media Sites in Educating University Alkartom  to use Modern Technology in Education.”

The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of Social Media sites in directing university youth to use modern means of Technology in Learning, and to identify the extent of Satisfaction that these means achieve for them in the educational process and use a sample that shows the high rate of use of the study sample for Social Media sites, and it was 100% distributed between ( 88.5%) on a Regular basis, (11.5%) Irregularly, and the Facebook site was occupied, and the study concluded that the perceived benefit: These young people believe that those means are those that meet their needs and facilitate some tasks for them, such as Learning about news or following events For example) and external Motivation: that these young people have external motives for self-development, learning new things, or engaging in political and social life, which gave them the drive to fulfill these needs.

5 – Alya Reda Abdel-Azim (2018) study (2) entitled “Application of Distance Learning in Document and Archive Programs: Electronic Archive Program with Open Education”

The study aims to conceptualize the Mechanisms for preparing Distance Education programs and withdraw these Mechanisms on the document and Archive Specialization in order to know the extent of applying Distance Education to the Electronic Archive Program with Open Education, and then draw a proposal for the Application of Distance Education on the Electronic Archive Program in Open Education at Cairo University, and will be followed The descriptive and analytical approach in describing and analyzing the Electronic Archive Program in open Education with the aim of applying Distance Education to the Electronic Archive Program in Open Education.

 

 

 

6 – Latifa Ali (2017) ([13]) study Entitled “Employing Information and Communication Technology in E-learning”

The study aims to provide education through Electronic Media and the need for a serious pause by officials to replace traditional Education with Electronic Education, improve and develop knowledge and Research Skills and improve the use of technical Skills. This study relies on theoretical references for intellectual production on the subject of employing Information and Communication Technology in E-learning. Computers in Education led to a revolution in teaching curricula, which necessitated the introduction of some adjustments in teaching Methods and thus began the shift from focusing on teaching to focusing on learning that affects the acquisition of new mental Schemes, Knowledge, Abilities and Skills, and given the great changes that Society is witnessing with the entry of the era Information and the Communication revolution, educational Institutions’ Programs need to be rebuilt to keep pace with the acceleration of the times, and for this it has become necessary to reform the educational System with all its inputs and outputs, especially in light of the inability of the current System to meet the challenges created by Information and Communication Technology and the world’s transformation from an industrial Society to an Information Society.

7 – Karim Awad Braissem (2017) study ([14]) Entitled “The Effectiveness of a Training Program Using Visual Communication Technology to Develop Field Training Methods in the Faculties of Basic Education in Iraq”

The study revealed the importance of educational visual Communication methods in the process of teaching the Materials established in the basic stages of Teachers of all Scientific Specializations in order to communicate Information, Ideas and Experiences in a better and easier way, as it has become an integrated part of the other Elements of the educational process such as the Methodology, Methods and requirements and works to involve all the senses of the Learner to achieve the process Educational.

 

 

 

The Goals of the study :

  • Identify the uses of Communication technology to develop and activate the field of Distance Education in Qatar.
  • Learn about the development and future role that Qatar plays in the field of Distance Education and Communication technology.
  • Highlight the scientific and research capabilities that the State of Qatar provides to the public and ways to develop the scientific and educational aspects for the advancement of the country
  • Studying the problems that constitute an obstacle to the maximum benefit from Communication technology and distance education.
  • The extent to which educational and research institutions in the State of Qatar benefit from Communication technology.

The  Importance  of  Studying:

  • The importance of this study lies in Identifying the extent to which modern technological Techniques are being used in Distance Education and what are the negatives and positives.
  • Utilizing the results of the study on Research in the integration of Communication Technology and Distance Education to become the nucleus for Researchers to continue Research work on this topic, which can be developed and utilized from the findings of the Research in providing more in-depth and advanced studies.
  • This study is one of the few studies in which Communication Technology has been

combined with Distance Education, so it can be relied upon by other Researchers in developing Research that deepens and develops the fields of Education in general and the field of Distance Education in particular.

Procedural  and  Methodological  Framework  of  The  Study:

  • Type of study:

The current study belongs to the field of descriptive Studies, which aims to Monitor, describe and analyze Qatar’s future Role in developing Distance Education using Communication Technology, as evidenced by its practical applications, in what it publishes from a field sample; This includes delving into field Procedures, and Identifying the relationships between the parties to the Media Phenomenon under study.

2 –  Methodology  of the  studying: The study is based on the survey method, which is     defined as an organized scientific    effort to obtain information about the phenomenon under study ([15]). The survey method is the  most   appropriate scientific method for collecting field data on a particular  phenomenon, explaining it, explaining it and explaining the correlation  relationships between its variables. It   also allows the generalization of scientific phenomena, which allows By making scientific generalizations and conclusions that can be re-tested and  verified ([16]).

  • -Data Collection Tools:

The study is based on an Electronic Questionnaire form that is distributed to the field study sample to Question the respondents ’opinion on the Phenomenon under study.

  • Study population:

The Qatari Public in all its groups, whether Economic, political, and Social, and with

all its  demographic Factors

  • Study sample:

All Segments of Citizens living in Cities in the State of Qatar. The sample consisted of

(400)  Individuals aged 20 years and over

Study concepts:

  • Communication Technology:

The group of different techniques, tools, means, or systems that are employed to process the content or content that is intended to be communicated through the mass, personal, or organizational Communication process, through which the audio, written, pictorial, graphic, or audio information and data are collected ([17])

  • Distance education:

It is the process of separating the Learner, the Teacher and the Book in the educational environment, and the transfer of the traditional environment of Education from a University or School and others to a multi-geographically separate environment, which is a modern Phenomenon of Education that has developed with the rapid technological development in the world, and the aim is to give the opportunity for Education and provide it to Students who cannot get it in Traditional conditions and almost daily work ([18]).

Chapter II

 

The relationship between Communication technology and Distance Education Smoothing The reality of distance education

 

 

Introduction

 

First: the concept of Distance Education

 

Second: E-learning styles

 

Third: E-learning objectives

 

Fourth: the advantages and characteristics of distance learning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Second Topic:

 

 

Communication Technology and Distance Education

 

 

First: The Definition of Communication Technology

Second: Technological Progress and the Information and  Communication Revolution

Third: Characteristics of Modern Communication Technology

Fourth: The Relationship between Communication and Education

Fifth: Educational Communication Skills

Sixth: Educational Technology Means

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Third Topic :

 

The Role of the State of Qatar in Supporting the Educational Process and Distance Education

 

 

First: The Reality of Education in Qatar

 

Second: The Reasons for the Distinction of Education in Qatar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction:

International Transformations are clearly reflected in Societal Variables (Political, Social, Economic, Educational, and Cultural), as there is a close Connection between these Variables, as these Variables represent an interconnected and interacting Community System that affects and is affected by each other, especially educational, as they represent Part of the Societal System, as it is affected by the direction in which the Community believes and practices; Consequently, the effects of these changes are reflected in a large degree on the efficiency of all Institutions of society, including these Institutions of new Technology, whose effects have been reflected on the educational Policy of most Countries of the world.

It is worth noting the importance of Communication Technology and its impact on educational Conditions during the current era, especially with the Emergence of the Corona pandemic, as there were a number of educational terms, including (Active Learning, Blended Learning, Distance Learning, Teaching Methods), all of which are terms that Teachers are encouraged (Professors). Universities – School Teachers) for their use in teaching, whose methods extend from the traditional to the use of PowerPoint slides, to the mixed teaching methods.

Distance Education is an alternative choice that is used in exceptional Circumstances such as the Circumstances of the spread of the Corona pandemic, as in those Circumstances it uses advanced and modern educational Methodologies, which include tools and strategies that mix between typical learning methods and active learning Techniques, and this type of Education can have many advantages And benefits to the Teaching System in general.

Therefore, the Issue of Distance Education and investing in it is no longer a local or regional Phenomenon only, but has become a global one, because of its prominent and Distinct Role in supporting the process of effective Education and sustainable development in its holistic and integrated concept, growth and development, due to technological and cognitive considerations that accelerate and nourish the movement between development Diverse Human, Political, Economic and Developmental ([19]).

 

 

 

 

 

The First Topic

The Reality of Distance Education

 

First: The Concept of Distance Education

Second: E-Learning Styles

Third: E-Learning Objectives

Fourth: The Advantages and Characteristics of Distance Learning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Education is one of the main pillars in the relationship of information technology with society as a whole and its relationship with this technology is getting more and more reliable day by day, whether in terms of being a means of Education, an educational material, or a tool to support School and educational Administration, and the Computer can have a role in developing Education Systems as preparation for that Providing Students, qualifying Teachers, educating the School and Educational Administration, preparing Software, and modifying curricula and teaching methods ([20]).

Distance Learning is noted; it had revealed many facts, including the shortcomings of the current teaching and learning methods – that is, the traditional – however, the Distance Learning System, without a doubt, has its advantages and disadvantages, and it can depend on the subject matter, but not to blame it for the known problems. In current teaching and learning methods ([21]).

Accordingly, what is called educational Globalization has emerged, which means the possibility of transcending regionalism and Nationalism, using Information and Communication Technology. Which led to the possibility of delivering Information to anyone anywhere in the world at a tremendous speed while preserving its quality ([22]).

It has a broad concept with three dimensions: Economic Freedom, the Tendency to more scientific and technological, the existing overlap of these Dimensions.

 

First: the concept of distance education:

Distance Education is based on a Philosophy that affirms the right of individuals to access available educational Opportunities, that is, Education is open to all people and is not restricted to a time or Class of Learners and is not limited to a level or type of Education, it is commensurate with the Nature of the needs and aspirations of Society and its Members, and the development of their professions, as it does not depend The confrontation between the Teacher and the Learner, but rather the transfer of Knowledge to the Learner through multiple educational means wherever it is found, and this was reinforced by the rapid technical developments that facilitated Communication between Students on the one hand and their Teachers on the other ([23]).

Distance Education – which can be accessed all over the world using the Internet – enables Students who have the ability to own a Computer and connect to the Internet to obtain an online degree, as well as the ability to choose between a set of models and educational Programs that fit their lifestyle. For Distance Education to be synchronous or asynchronous, and in many cases, Distance Education is available in an asynchronous fashion, which makes it flexible and the ideal alternative to face-to-face Education, especially for Professionals and Workers ([24]).

The concept of Distance Education refers to the fact that it “is based on the principle of not requiring the simultaneous existence of the Learner with the Teacher in the same place, and thus both the Teacher and the Learner will not have to deal with the other party, and then the necessity arises for a mediator between the Teacher and the Learner, and this Mediation has technical, Human and organizational Aspects ” ([25]).

He also refers – that is, Distance Education – to “that education in which the Teacher and the Student are not in the same Classroom, but are separated spatially by the Distance Factor, which may extend for thousands of Miles, and thus this type of Education gives the Learner the Freedom to choose the place and time he wants to learn ([26]).

It can also be defined – that is, Distance Education – as “Courses offered outside the University campus by using live or recorded Television broadcasts, Video Films, Radio broadcasts, CDs, or Computer-based Systems such as the Internet” ([27]).

The concept of Distance Education also refers to “all the different forms of study at all levels, which are not under the direct and continuous supervision of Teachers in the Lecture Room, and this study is based on School planning, Guidance and Organization” ([28]).

Distance Education also indicates that it is a type of Electronic or Virtual Education, which is the type of Education that depends on the use of Electronic Media in Communication between Teachers and Learners and between Learners and the educational Institution as a whole ([29]).

It is also referred to as “the use of the Multimedia that is included in the Electronic medium from the international Information network, the Internet, Astelaide, Radio, Video Films, Television, CD-ROM, Videoconferencing, E-mail, or a conversation between two parties via the international Information network in the educational process ([30]).

In general, the concept of Distance Education refers to being a Teaching System or strategy, which appeared in the nineteenth Century under the name of correspondence Education, and then developed into E-Learning, which is a modern concept of Education that separates the Teacher from the Learner, and thus is geographically and temporally independent, and more flexible Taking into account the Circumstances of Students ([31]),

and it appeared in several forms and types, which can be explained as follows ():

  • Evening education: It is provided as a solution for Students Employed in the morning shift, and they are allowed to Continue their Education in the form of evening Classes.
  • Education by correspondence: as it is based on sending Lessons and tests through post Offices.
  • Teaching through audio: It is an ancient Education System that relied on the Radio to spread Lessons.
  • Teaching through audio-visual means: which is done by presenting the Lessons on Television, in Sound and Image.
  • Interactive, simultaneous remote learning: which allows the Learner to receive the Lesson and interact with the Teacher, thus allowing him to ask Questions and answer the Teacher’s Applications.
  • Distance E-Learning: It is the latest type of Distance Education, as it depends on the Computer and the Internet for teaching.

Distance Education is an active process. Because it challenges the Learner to own, manage and schedule educational work, and it can be a difficult task for some Learners who start learning for the first time from the difficulty of controlling and controlling time, and Distance Education must be interactive and cooperative, and the media is enabled for Learners to interact with the course content with the trainer or With other Learners in the Course, and thus the task of Education is no longer in the first place to acquire the educational material, but rather to develop the Skills of obtaining and employing it, generating new knowledge, and linking it to what preceded it ([32]).

It is noteworthy that many developed Countries, whether in the European Union or the United States of America, have already started building Information Technology Facilities that join the Classroom, with the aim of modernizing the Leaching and Learning process. The University of Maryland in the United States of America includes Electronic Classes that help groups of Students to Work and Electronic Communication at Harvard University, an experimental program was introduced, in which each of the University City Rooms was equipped with a personal Computer connected to a Network for participation, and Computer applications and simulations were used as an add-on to support the preparation process and case studies ([33]).

 

Second: E-Learning Styles:

The diversification of the development of Distance Education, under different names, such as Correspondence Education and Open Education. The Communication Technologies used in that type of Education have evolved, as the first Generation relied on publications and mail systems to send them to Students, while the second Generation clearly relied on the means Technology, beginning with Radio and Television, and ending with the Internet era, which, according to many people, is an extension of the third generation of Distance Education.

Despite the multiplicity of modes of Distance Education, and the Mechanisms for achieving it, this imposes the necessity of qualifying the elements of the educational process, as the plans and Policies that are developed to encourage and expand the use of Information Technology in education must include a basic Element, which is preparing the Teacher to use Information Technology, whether from During in-service training or through curricula for preparing Teachers with training in the use of Information Technology within multiple Courses ([34]).

In the same regard, reference can be made to the Open Learning style, which indicates the possibility of studying in a flexible learning environment, in which the Learner has the Freedom to choose the goals of his learning, determine the time and place of study, and program that study, meaning that the Learner gives the opportunity to adjust his studies and is responsible for them Open Education platforms have spread as one of these technologies with the dawn of the Internet era, and have met with great success, due to the ease of publishing and sharing their content electronically, as individuals are allowed to participate in Lessons and courses without any Academic or Economic conditions; With the aim of facilitating access to knowledge that was historically provided by Educational Institutions ([35]).

Thus, the types of e-learning can be classified into two main types, and this can be explained as follows ([36]):

 

  • Synchronous Education: In this type, the two parties to the educational process, “the Teacher and the Learner”, are required to be present at the same time, so that the interaction is available and it is called direct education. An example of this type is Conversation or Video Conferencing.
  • Asynchronous Education: It does not require the presence of the Teacher and the Learner at the same time, and it is called Indirect Education, and in this type of Education the Learner relies on himself and progresses according to his individual capabilities, through the technologies provided by E-learning, such as: E-mail and research. And unlike the two previous styles; There is also a directed enrollment pattern, and this pattern is considered one of the patterns of Teacher numbers that are limited in spread across the world, and this system exists in the United Arab Emirates University, where University Education is provided to Citizens who have been deprived of it through a set of modern methods and methods that do not require full-time for those enrolled in the System ([37]).

In addition to these patterns, the pattern of Education by correspondence is also added. France is considered one of the Countries that fall under this pattern, and has taken its means in preparing for the Information age in Schools and Institutes, and has paid special attention to preparing the Teacher remotely ([38]).

 

Third: E-Learning Objectives:

Distance Education is one of the forms of Non-traditional Education, which is any type of Education that differs from Teacher-dependent Education, or direct face-to-face Education ([39]), and therefore these goals vary greatly, and can be referred to, as follows:

  • Raising the quality of Courses, Educational Resources and Programs.
  • Improving the quality of Learning and its outcomes, through the application of principles of active and effective Learning, and the use of constructive and Social cognitive Theories that focus on building learning, not just Memorization and Memorization.
  • Achieving equality and equal educational Opportunities for all; Because anyone can access E-learning without Conditions for gender, age, marital or Health status, or anything else.
  • Liberating Learners from the constraints of the traditional Education System, such as: Attendance, and Adherence to a specific Schedule and Deadlines.
  • Achieving fun and activity for the Learner through exciting Presentations, which include Sound, Image, Video and Games, as well as the effective participation of the Learner through discussions and Projects.
  • Developing the Academic and professional performance of professors and Teachers, through rich Information and Resources.
  • – Reducing the Burdens of Teachers, such as: Adherence to Attendance, preparation of lessons, registration of attendance, and absence.
  • Saving time, increasing the speed of learning, through the permanent availability of scientific material, the ability to communicate with teachers and colleagues at any time, and not to relate to the speed of others and their capabilities.
  • Reducing costs and reducing expenditures in the long run, by eliminating some of the necessary work in traditional Education, such as: travel, transportation, administrative costs, educational materials, and publications.
  • The Universality of learning and the dissemination of quality Education, as the increase in numbers does not impede the quality of Education. In order to achieve the aforementioned goals related to the Distance Education Sector, it must be pointed out the importance of Multimedia Techniques as a positive, interactive method that enables the Learner to simulate the external reality, and to communicate directly with sources of knowledge without the need for division, simplification or reduction, so that the Learner’s awareness can be developed, and rid of The scourge of negative reception, developing his skills, and supporting him in Systematic, systematic thinking ([40]).

These goals impose attempts to apply Distance Education as an option to increase availability and improve quality in Education, as there is a significant growth in the number of Students who are enrolled in primary School; This affects the educational Structures, the increasing pressure on them and the need to expand to meet the increase in the number of Students enrolled in Schools, as the past forty years witnessed a great expansion, as the rates of enrollment in Schools doubled ([41]).

 

Fourth: The Advantages and Characteristics of Distance Learning:

E-learning is characterized by many characteristics, but they differ according to the method used to provide this education, some of which are more widespread, and some of them give the space to interact more, while others are more suitable for individual abilities and achieve students ’preferences.

 

the most important characteristics of e-learning are:

  • Creating an interactive environment during the learning process through the multiplicity of technologies used, including printed texts, pictures, and video films.
  • Not being restricted to a time or place, as it can be used anywhere in the world on all days of the week, for a period of (24) hours a day.
  • Teaching large numbers in a short time, and compensating for the shortage of academic staff.
  • Expanding the scope of education for the different groups of society, regardless of age, social and economic level, or health status, so that everyone can continue his education.
  • Multiple sources of knowledge; As a result of communicating with various internet sites, and dealing with thousands of websites, databases, and scientific sources.
  • Communication, dialogue, and exchange of information between students and each other, and between students and teachers.
  • Diversity in evaluation methods (pre, post, formative), in addition to accurate, immediate and rapid evaluation with correcting errors, so the learner receives continuous feedback, which enhances the learning process.
  • Improving the use of technological skills and developing knowledge and research skills.
  • Providing support services in the educational process, such as schedules, Registration, and examination Organization.
  • It helps professional growth through the opportunities it provides for in-service training and continuing Education.

In general, training and Distance Education is seen as a pattern of providing expensive labor, and in the field of education, employment here is represented by the teacher, who is replaced by an intermediary, be it computers or ready-made courses, and this does not mean that the teacher has become without a role, but his role has changed to become a mentor And a guide and say that is designed for these ready-made courses ([42]).

Compared to the previous features of distance education, the Arab world suffers from several problems that hinder its progress, and its beginning is the lack of financial resources allocated to finance it, and this may be due to officials ’lack of belief in this type of education, and the reason may be due to the conservative view of education as the right of the elite. Their socio-economic and geographical conditions enable them to continue their educational career ([43]).

In general, it can be said that Distance Education, despite its extreme complexity, is called for progress and improvement. It is an educational form completely different from other forms, and all its potentials have not yet been explored. However, a large number of Teachers have recognized its value, as for the planning problems that were reviewed. Then you will find a solution to it with the gradual maturity of the System, and in sum, Distance Education is a challenge of great importance that not only developed Countries but developing Countries raise it as well, at least for Economic reasons ([44]).

 

 

 

The Second Topic:

 

 

Communication Technology and Distance Education

 

First: The Definition of Communication Technology

 

Second: Technological Progress and the Information

and Communication Revolution

 

Third: Characteristics of Modern Communication Technology

 

Fourth: The Relationship between Communication and Education

Fifth: Educational Communication Skills

 

Sixth: Educational Technology Means

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Information Technology is based on the collaboration between three scientific areas: Electronics, Communication and Electronic Computers. If in the past centuries technology was devoted to the development of the machine necessary for the development of production, then in modern times Technology has developed the machine for Mental Operations, and this requires not only receiving and transmitting Information, but also processing them so that many problems can be solved. Hence, the convergence of Computer Technology and Communication Technology to pave the way for Information Technology, in other words, Information Technology was a product of the fusion or combination of Electronics, Communications and Computers that showed humanity what we can call the Information Technology Industry ([45]).

 

First: Definition of Communication Technology:

 

The Definitions of Technology varied, as it is defined as: “The group of Technologies, means, tools, or different systems that are employed to address the content or content that is to be communicated through the Communication process (personal, collective, or public), by which Information is collected. And Audio, written, Printed, or Digital data (through Electronic Computers), then storing this data and Information and returning it at the appropriate time, then the process of publishing these Communication materials, Messages, or Audio-visual or Digital Printed content, transferring it from one place to another and exchanging it, and these Technologies may be Manual, automatic or Electronic, depending on the stage of the historical development of the means of Communication([46]).

With the multiplicity of the Definitions presented for the concept of Communication technology, awareness of the importance of studying Communication Technology; Given its importance in the transfer of knowledge and Information between individuals and societies, and its impact on the activity of Organizations with their various activities and services, thus technology represents the medium used in the exchange and transfer of Information and ideas between individuals and Organizations in society ([47]).

In recent years, Research has developed that dealt with Communication technology in the context of its importance to Institutions and Organizations, especially in the field of Information development, which contributed to increasing competition between Organizations in providing a specific product at a lower cost and high quality, as well as the efficiency of procedures that were translated into the form of experience and knowledge in presenting Service to the public. In contrast to Communication technology, it can also be referred to the concept of education technology, which means problem analysis and administrative coordination, as it is concerned with developing Education and educational Administration together, because the processes of analyzing problems after discovering them and trying to find appropriate solutions are completely compatible with the functions of educational development, and on the other hand, The processes of coordination, supervision and management of Education correspond to the functions of the educational Administration, and accordingly, Education Technology is concerned with the educational process from the administrative and administrative angle ([48]).

 

Second:

Technological Advances and the Information and Communication Revolution:

The global and societal transformations represent evidence of the information age of the new world order, as they are the most important Characteristic of the Information and Communication revolution. The knowledge explosion is no longer limited to the experimental sciences, but rather extended to the Human sciences. Because of the dependence on the machine, information and Communication Technology, and its increased effectiveness in all fields ([49]).

Communication is one of the modern Technologies, and it is one of the most prominent features of the twenty-first century, as it is the new world, in which dealing with the machine has ended and dealing with information has become part of the process of change, so the person who is able to live in this century is able to deal with the vast amount of Information. Permanent Education, retraining and rehabilitation, because all is related to the quality of Education in Society ([50]).

The possession of Information is one of the most important Characteristics of the outputs of power and wealth in this century, and that the global struggle for power is a struggle for the distribution of knowledge and access to it, so controlling knowledge is the decisive Element of the struggle for power at the global level ([51]).

The knowledge society represents one of the most important of the late twentieth century, full of promise for the future. The digital transformation of information brought about a profound revolution in the world of Communication. It is characterized by the emergence of Multi-media Systems and the tremendous expansion of remote data and Information processing networks, for example the Internet; It doubles every year, and this indicates that it is a necessary revolution that allows acceptance of an increasing amount of Information in a very short time; Due to the rapid doubling of Information, it is also noticeable that Technology has an increasing penetration into all areas and activities of Society ([52]).

The knowledge Society is based on integration and aggregation, so Information is produced and accumulated greatly, unlike the industrial Society, which is based on specialization and division of labor, and Information production is the main driving and driving force in the knowledge society, as the integration  between Information and Communication Technology is evident in the development of Computers. The Mechanism is the basis in the knowledge Society, Telephone and Information  Networks, the use of Satellite broadcasting Technology, Digital Television, and the integration of Television with Computer Technology, and it is expected that Television will be used in browsing over the Internet in addition to Internet Technology It provides great potential in the field of knowledge and learning. The shift towards a new type of Communication based on free and direct interaction between the Sender and the future opens new Horizons for new uses and functions of Information and Communication that work to break the traditional divides between new Horizons for new uses and functions of Information and Communication that work to break the traditional lines between mass Communication and personal Communication, and this is one of the most important Characteristics of a knowledge Society. Accordingly, the administrative organization in the knowledge society will shift from the centralization of hierarchical levels in the industrial Society in which the work is distributed vertically “to the Decentralization” of the multi-centered Society in which the units are integrated, and the work in it is distributed horizontally, and in this Society individuals will enjoy a democratic political system. It is based on participation, instead of a democratic system based on parliamentary in the industrial community, and accordingly education and access to Information, and knowledge are the basis of social mobility, and the majority of the workforce in this Society works in the information industry and related mental professions and services based on Information ([53]).

 

Knowledge or Information and Communication Societies can lead in technological development to mobilize a cultural and educational environment that complements the diversification of sources of knowledge and Science, but to varying degrees. Broad as it goes beyond its use for educational purposes. Rather, it requires thought actions in all aspects of the use of knowledge in the world of Technology. New Technology is a real revolution in work-related activities, production and activities related to education and training. It is noteworthy that education policies in the world at all levels of education are witnessing many changes, as the eighties were marked by awareness-raising and the nineties with reorganization, as for the first years of the second millennium It was distinguished by its speed, movement and management, as well as contributing to obtaining Information, achieving the objectives of the Institution as required, and reaching the institution to the level of aspirations of those it serves ([54]).

The World is increasingly affected by these transformations represented by the scientific and technological revolutions, which represent a basic factor for understanding modernity, creating new forms of Socialization, and setting new Definitions of individual and collective subjectivity, and the expansion of Information and Communication Technology. Lead to facilitating Communication with others Worldwide ([55]).

 

Third: Characteristics of Modern Communication Technology:

The Information revolution is considered one of the most important features of the current era, and it represents a challenge to developing societies, as the matter increases the risk that the scientific and technological production of these countries does not exceed (1%) of the world’s production; As developing countries, it is imperative that they work hard to keep pace with global progress in the field of Science and Technology, and to find formulas to access the Information available from developed countries as well as to inventory, organize and exchange Information ([56]).

The widespread spread of modern Communication technology and the exchange of information is one of the most important features of contemporary societies, which led to a consensus among Information experts that such a trend will lead to a third Millennium that depends entirely on the production and display of Information products and services,

 

There are some features of Communication technology, which can be explained, as follows:

 

  • Interactivity: This feature is given to the degree in which the participants in the Communication process have an influence on the roles of others, and they can exchange them, and their practice is called reciprocal or interactive practice, and it is interactive because the individual can perform communicative actions, the Sender and the Receiver, and the communicators are called the term Participants instead of sources, and thus new terms entered into the Communication process such as bilateral Practice, Exchange, Control, and Participation ([57]).
  • Non-publicity: It means that the Communication message may be directed to one individual or a specific group, not to huge Audiences as it was in the past, and it also means the degree of control over the Communication System so that the message reaches directly from the message Producer to its Consumer.
  • Mobility or mobility: it means that it allows individuals to use it at anytime and anywhere, and that is considered flexible Communication Networks that can move around.
  • Transferability: It is the ability of the means of Communication to transfer Information from one medium to another, with the possibility of displacing previous technological alternatives, and then the juvenile Communication Technology affects the less modern Technology.
  • Internationalization or globalization: The rapid development in Communication Technology and its trend towards shortening the factor of time and Distance greatly help in the transmission and exchange of Information between different parts of the world in the least possible time, and this development has reached so important that the globe has been called the Global Village description .

The era of Communication and Information Technology has been marked by an increasing growth in the number, diversity, and multiplicity of rapid broadcast and reception means, and these developments have been accompanied by far-reaching technological, professional, Economic and social changes. Communications Technology has followed three basic directions([58]):

 

The development of Audio-Visual and print Communication Technology, and this trend has resulted in new Communication methods that have their own implications, as well as their implications for traditional methods and means, namely satellites, Audio and Video Cables, as well as the development of the information field.

This development is based on two bases:

The first is related to developments in Information Technology, which were linked to the emergence of Computers during the seventies of this century, and their use led to amazing developments in information storage, retrieval, systems, exchange and spread systems, and the second related to developments in remote Communication technology using satellites as an alternative to terrestrial and marine cables, in addition to developing Communication networks, by taking advantage of the Revolution in Communications and Information Technology, have brought them together the digital system into which Communication systems have evolved, so Communication networks are interconnected with information networks, which we clearly see in our daily life from faxing via Telephone Networks.

 

 

In addition to this, there is another set of features and characteristics that characterize Communication and information technology, including: The sector of the effects of Information Technology has become the main sector in contemporary Society, and developed Societies have become called the Technology of Information Societies. Communication and Information have formed a feature of post-industrial Societies, as this sector related to the production, management, transmission, and distribution of information in its various forms constituted one of the  most vital sectors in those Societies, and the international expansion of Information activities as part of two processes that are closely linked together, namely the process of commercial transcendence of national borders, and its axis in the activities of transcontinental or multinational companies, and the process of information overcoming national borders, which includes radical changes in the means of storage and processing Information retrieval, and the rapid growth of Telecommunications equipment, Software, and Television ([59]).

The development in Communication and Information Technology has led to a review of government performance and its educational functions, and the services it provides to the sectors of society, whether the public or other organizations and institutions, and how they keep pace with the requirements of the times. Therefore, Communication and Information Technology constitutes a new sector that is added to the restructuring of the modern national Economies of developed and developing Countries alike ([60]).

 

Fourth: The Relationship Between Communication and Education:

The means of Communication Technology developed in the second half of the twentieth century clearly. Making it able to enter all areas of life, including the Media, Economic, cultural and political, and as an inevitable result of that, the means of Communication entered the educational process in general, and the processes of learning and Education in particular, and this is why it has spread clearly in schools, colleges and universities. And in view of the effects the information and Communication revolution has had on various societal aspects, especially in post-industrial Societies; It became necessary for the members of these Societies to know information and knowledge about the Computer as one of the most important tools of information technology, and to acquire some basic Skills associated with it in the context of technological literacy, and to know its Components, Software and ses ([61]).

With regard to Children; The child, since his inception, is surrounded by different means of Communication and media from every Aspect, in addition to Stories, Books, Newspapers and Magazines, and as a result of that the child comes to School and has extensive experience with these means, so it became the duty of the School curricula to raise the level of School curricula, and that Its development can meet this reality and these challenges. On the impact on educational curricula; It is noticed that the various means of Communication and media, in general, and Television in particular, have affected teaching methods, and methods of transmitting information to students, and even some radio and television programs have become; Because of the material and Human efforts and energies that have been mobilized for it that exceed what the school offers, it has become necessary for the School to amend its teaching methods and make use of modern means. Despite the development of modern means of Communication, and their ability to serve the educational process in general,

 

 

 

 

 

they have created new challenges for that process, which can be monitored, as follows ([62]):

  • The School cannot be kept away from the means of Communication and the Media, rather it must be taken into account in teaching, through the use of Television and Audio recordings.
  • The School creates areas for cooperation between it and what these means offer within the framework of a system that allows it to contribute to the achievement of some Educational Goals, by providing programs that contribute to enriching educational curricula.
  • Educational Institutions can participate in conducting Studies about these means, and their educational and psychological effects, in order to improve the Methods of using them.
  • Preparing Students with the necessary expertise to choose the best among these means. As a result of the advancement of technology, the means of Communication and the media developed at a breakneck speed during the twentieth century, until these means became a feature of the era, and their effects were reflected in cultural and intellectual life, as well as the way of life and Behaviors, and the educational process was greatly affected by these means, and the Information they provide. Until it became a great challenge for the School and its educational Role. As it aims to Communicate within what it aims to educate people, and to prepare the Citizen culturally, educationally and morally to play the positive role in the service of the society in which he lives, and it also aims to refine the Citizen’s personality, and provide him with the necessary Information, Skills and directions; To become a person capable of production, and this is done through well-known means of Communication (such as Radio, Television, the press and Publications), in the form of educational programs, Articles, or televised educational programs, for School Students ([63]).

 

The results of field studies and research have shown that the different means of Communication (print, audio and visual) are:

It provided clear support for the educational process in general, and for School curricula and teaching methods in particular, as it clearly contributed to:

 

improving the level of the educational process and its results, raising the level of achievement among the Learners, and addressing many educational problems and Education problems, increasing the Learners ’outcome of Vocabulary and Terminology, and raising the level of culture Public among the educated. It is noted that in the last ten years, the increasing role of Communication and its means has increased in the process of creating and developing an appropriate educational environment for the success of the educational process, and to gain advanced and positive results through it. The duty to use modern means of Communication to perform their tasks, and ignoring this matter may impede the educational process, or at least keep it less advanced. Than it could be. The means of Communication, especially the masses, such as Radio and Television, have been able to deliver Education and Culture to Millions who live in remote areas, in which it is difficult to establish Schools, and have also contributed to solving many educational, social and health problems they have, and fought illiteracy and contributed to limiting its percentage. That the educational process is Communication processes at the same time, or the classroom or the lecture hall, it is one of the areas in which the Communication process takes place between the Sender (Teacher) and the Future (the Learner), and for this the Communication process has affected the role of the Teacher and the Learner clearly, and the role of Each of them is where the teaching process is not moving in one direction, but rather has become a circular process. The multiple roles of the means of Communication in general, and the means of mass Communication in particular in raising the level of the teaching and learning process can be referred to in the following points ([64]):

  • Providing appropriate solutions to the problems facing the development of Education, namely:
  • The tremendous increase in knowledge and the Humanities. Population inflation.
  • Illiteracy is widespread.
  • The inability of developing Countries to keep pace with scientific developments.
  • Treating the problem of the small number of educated Teachers, and making use of the distinguished groups of them in teaching larger numbers of learners in a faster time through radio and television programs and others.
  • Teaching the increasing numbers of Students in School Classes, addressing the problem of individual teams among students, and providing faster Education with less effort and a greater number of Learners at a cheaper cost, with the availability of excitement and suspense Elements.
  • Providing a lot of real experiences to the Learner.
  • Using advanced Technology to overcome the conditions of the disabled that prevent their learning.
  • Effective diarrhea in adult Education programs and literacy through Distance Learning.
  • Enriching the Learner’s environment with the perceptions that help him in forming realistic perceptions and experiences related to the environment and work life.

Fifth: Educational Communication Skills:

The means, Channels and technology of Communication in all its forms are used in the educational process, especially in the Teaching and Learning processes, and the means of Communication used in the educational process are classified into three main types:

 visual aids, and include all means that depend on the sense of sight alone, including Pictures, models, samples, drawings, maps and books Magazines, newspapers and other printed materials, in addition to Audio, and includes all means that depend on the sense of Hearing to receive it, and includes various Audio recordings and School Radio, as well as Audio-Visual Aids, and includes all means that depend on receiving them on the two senses of Hearing and Sight, and includes: Educational television, And educational talking films and slides accompanied by audio recordings. The educational Communication process, in its various levels and circumstances, requires four basic skills that the sender and the receiver, whether a Teacher or a Learner, must master in order for the educational process to take place with high efficiency and effectiveness, and some may think that these skills are inherited, and the truth is that they are acquired, and the individual can be trained on them. He can also develop it himself through Reading, Learning and Experience in different situations that require Communication processes of various forms and types. These skills can be summarized in (Reading Skill – Writing Skill – Speaking Skill – Listening Skill), in addition to these basic general Communication Skills in the field of Education , adds integrity of special Skills ([65]).

These means and Channels provide a lot of benefit to the Teacher, and they also help improve his educational performance through: Helping to raise the level of his professional competence and readiness, and changing his role from conveyor and informer of information to a planner, implementer and evaluator of learning, and help him to better display, evaluate and control the material, and enable him to Better use of available time, save time and effort spent by the Teacher, help him in stimulating motivation among Students, and help him overcome the limits of time and space in the classroom.

The benefit and positive response to the learner from Communication Technology can be indicated through: developing his curiosity and his desire to learn, strengthening the relationship between him and the teacher and the learners themselves if used adequately, expanding the range of experiences that the learner goes through, and also contributing to the formation of desired positive trends In it among the learner, it encourages the learner to participate and interact with the classroom situation, in addition to it stimulates the learner’s interest and desire for education, which increases his motivation, makes educational experiences more effective, maintains an impact and is less likely to be forgotten, and provides opportunities for the desired diversification and renewal.

 

 

Sixth: Educational Technology Means:

The educational Aids related to Communication Technology can be referred to as the Tools and Methods that are used to improve the teaching and learning process, and which contribute to providing students with Skills, accustoming them to habits or developing trends and values ​​without relying on Words, Symbols and Numbers ([66]).

The concept of Technology Education is referred to here, as it is intended to teach Students about Technology and its use in Industry, Agriculture or Medicine, and it may include teaching Computers, Calculators, and various Communication devices, as Technology Education Aims to develop ideas and innovation and organize information to solve problems and collaborative work, And the production of things in an effort to satisfy the needs of the Learners, and improve their reality ([67]).

The means and Technology of education are considered an essential Element of the educational curriculum. Rather, they are an integral part of the comprehensive integrated Education System, and the use of educational means in the current era is considered one of the features of modern Education, especially after educational Research emphasized the importance of using Methods in different educational situations. , With what it can achieve in terms of suspense for the Learner, attracting his attention to the Lesson, fixing the scientific material in his mind, and making it keep an effect and not being exposed to quick forgetting and taking into account the principle of individual differences Among  Learners ([68]).

And what added to the importance of the educational Method in the educational situation was the possibility of it overcoming the problem of increasing numbers of Students, as well as the development of teaching Methods, and making the Learner participate and bear the responsibility of teaching himself side by side with the Teacher. In short, the educational Aids may include verbal (spoken) or written word, Picture, Map, Representations, Objects, Models, Samples, educational Trips, field visits, Radio and Pickups, Recording Tapes, Exhibitions, Museums, Scientific Films, Publications and practical presentations, and practical experiments, And stationary Films, Microfiche, Microfilm, and Microscope, as well as purposeful direct Experience, which is to speak to the same thing, interact with it, and learn from it face-to-face, and it is the finest types of educational Methods, but it is not always available, so it is replaced by other Educational Means. The stages of development of educational means can be referred to under different names, according to their historical development, as follows ([69]).

  • Hearing Aids: so named as they speak to the sense of Hearing, and examples are: the teacher’s Voice, the Radio, the Voice Recorder, the Recorders.
  • Visual Aids: so named as the learner learns from them depending on the sense of vision, and examples of them are: Blackboards, Maps, Floats, Pictures, and a Transparencies Display.
  • Audiovisual aids: so named because these means provide the Learner, both Audio and Visual, with what he Learns through them.
  • Assisted Aids, Teaching Aids: This designation follows the Role that the method plays in helping both the Teacher and the Learner in facilitating the teaching and learning process.
  • The Means of Clarification: This term indicates the role that the method plays in clarifying what is ambiguous in the Lesson.
  • Teaching Aids: This nomenclature came as a result of the development of the educational process and the introduction of a huge group of teaching and learning Methods and as a result of the Emergence of modern Theories in curricula, Teaching Methods, and educational Psychology.
  • Education Technology: This term follows from the complex Nature of the Technology that consists of these Methods, and is used in later Education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Third Topic

 

The role of Qatar in supporting the educational process and distance education

 

 

First, the reality of education in Qatar

 

Secondly, the reasons for the distinction of education in Qatar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Decision-Makers in Qatar have realized the importance of Education and that it is the most essential Element for achieving progress at all levels, whether Economic, Social and Military, and for this, the State of Qatar allocates a special budget for learning to improve the educational system and has pushed towards establishing Schools and Universities to private and international Schools for Qatari Students. Despite the priority given by the State of Qatar to the Education and Culture sector, Qatari Citizens are not satisfied with this level of Education in the Country, and this is evident when compared with the satisfaction of the Qatari Citizen with the other main public sectors, and in fact; A previous survey conducted by the Social and Economic Survey Research Institute revealed that Qataris feel a high degree of satisfaction with the utility sector but less satisfied with Education. And that’s when it comes to public services. We find here that Qataris, despite their dissatisfaction with the level of Education in independent Schools, seem uninterested in the other education options provided by the voucher system, which was launched recently. This illustrates the complex reality of the process of satisfying the citizen in general, but more specifically, in the local context where it appears that the citizen is strongly linked to his traditional values ([70]).

Within a few years, Education in Qatar reached an incomparable level in the Arab world, and its educational system became one of the five best education systems in the entire world, so how did the State of Qatar achieve so much rapid success and how Education in Qatar became the best Arab in years Few. Now, after a few years of the plan to develop Education in Qatar, this small Country has become the first in Education at the level of the Arab World, and even ranked fourth in the world in terms of the quality of Education, so how did you see this small Arab country reached so much Of success in the educational level, it certainly did not follow known rules on the Arab world and applied in it. Rather, European and American international curricula and teaching methods were used with the injection of a lot of money in the educational aspect, until it surpassed the Countries from which these experiences were taken and Education became in Qatar It is classified as one of the best Education Systems in the World, and it is worth noting that Qatar did not become superior in the educational aspect In a short time . Rather, it sought and worked for several years, beginning roughly from 2001 when Prince Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani decided to advance the state’s Education, as he realized that Education is the basis of success in everything in life, and if Qatar continues its old educational system, it will never achieve any success. Therefore, it is faster to change the education system and accelerate the pace of its advancement.

 

The reality of education in Qatar ([71]):

Education appeared in Qatar systematically in 1952 and began to develop at a slow steps until 2001. During that period, Education, like other Arab Countries, especially the Gulf States, did not make significant progress or change in Policies and curricula, and this is what made Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani accelerate The development of Education as soon as he assumed power, as he saw that Education is not developed at all and suffers from severe centralization that restricted it and made it steady, and then he contacted the American RAND Corporation for the Research and Development of Education in Qatar, and I offered him a set of options, one of which he chose to work within the State of Qatar Then independent Schools appeared that are supported by the government but operate without a government system, but rather operate in an independent system with independent bodies, and this is what made the wheel of development, excellence and innovation go very quickly, due to the intense competition between all independent Schools. It is worth noting that Qatar has an educational Vision called 2030, that vision in 2013 aimed at the rapid and strong advancement of Qatari education so that it becomes the best in the world, and after a few years, less than five years ago, Qatar was able to rank fourth in the world in Education, and this is a great success. Very impressive as he achieved in a short period of a large program that is still in progress, and the Qatari state is still pumping a lot of money for its own Education, as the Qatari present is completely different from any other traditional present.

Reasons for distinguishing education in Qatar ([72]):

There are a set of reasons and factors that led to the Distinction of Education in Qatar, and without them, we would not have seen all this tremendous progress. As we said earlier, Qatar is the fourth Country in the world and the first in the Arab World in terms of the level of Education, and what made it reach so much success and excellence is a set of reasons Which we will learn about below, and the first is the use of the foreign curriculum.

  • Using foreign curricula:

The Rand Corporation for Research and Development is the secret behind all this progress in Education in Qatar. This American-born, non-profit organization works to develop Research and applications so that Countries rise, and it has articulated a systematic plan for Education in Qatar adapted from the United States of America for Qatari Education to follow Indeed, this is what happened in 2001 when Prince Hamad bin Khalifa established independent schools, which are largely funded by the Government but not affiliated with the Government as they are dominated by the character of wide decentralization. These Schools used foreign curricula and left the old traditional curricula that were used before In 2001, these curricula included all primary, preparatory, secondary and University educational levels, and the situation changed a lot due to those foreign curricula until Education in Qatar became the first in the Arab World and the fourth in the World.

 

Assign global capabilities and competencies:

Among the reasons and factors that have led to the Distinction of Education in Qatar is the appointment of people with Global capabilities and competencies in the Qatari Education System. Of course, Teachers and Administrators are responsible for the development and progress of Education in any Country. If we put Teachers with an old thought, narrow horizons and a weak educational level, this will make students They graduate with very little educational levels, and this is the case in many Countries that Employ those who do not have sufficient capabilities in teaching and thus graduate students for us, most of whom are fruitless, so education does not depend on a specific curriculum, but must be developed permanently in order to keep pace with the progressive era in which we live, and this is what The State of Qatar implemented it in its educational system, as it appointed teachers worthy of that job and gave them very large sums of money compared to the rest of the Arab and non-Arab Countries. It also appointed managers, supervisors and officials in the educational sector who could change Education for the better quickly, and therefore from 2001 to the present day it is developing Qatari Education very quickly until it became the best Arab.

 

  • Using modern and technological methods([73]):

We come here to talk about another reason for the progress and development of Education in Qatar, which is the use of modern and technological methods, as teaching and learning in modern methods inevitably leads to the development of Education and the graduation of very good models of it, and this is what the State of Qatar has already done in its modern education as it has It introduced computers and smart screens to its schools, and it also made Students play games of intelligence and develop Skills in the Classroom, while walking according to a foreign studied system that gives very good results in the end, all this and more has made the State of Qatar the most distinguished in the Arab world and the fourth in the world.

 

Spending a lot of money on education:

The State of Qatar has never been skeptical in spending on Education in Qatar, as it has allocated a very large part of its money for the benefit of Education. Approximate Statistics say that the Qatari government has allocated only about twenty Billion Qatari riyals to Education, in addition to the large expenditure of the national product on Education, which was estimated By three and a half percent, and with the passage of time, that money spent on Education will increase until it reaches more than forty Billion US dollars by the year 2050, this large money is distributed in proportions studied and specified by the government to all Workers in the Education sector, including Teachers, officials, managers, and others. Of course, these sums of money attract highly qualified and capable Teachers to work in the State of Qatar, as the state provides them with everything they need in order to give the Student the best educational content ever, while the state that gives low Salaries to Employees has very poor Education quality, for example Egypt, so the Salary Teachers in Egypt start from sixty US dollars per Month, so the quality of Education is so poor that it was among the five worst educational Countries on the list. Economic reports predicted that investments in private Schools in Qatar would nearly triple in 2020, and that the total number of Students enrolled in Schools in Qatar would rise to about 392,000 Students by 2022, with a growth rate of 3.9%. ([74])

It is expected that 905 Schools today will receive Students for the 2019-2020 Academic year, after completing all preparations for the new Academic year, including 307 government Schools and 598 private Schools, and the current Academic year will witness the opening of 5 new Schools that enter service in different regions of the Country.

A report by the Alpine Capital Corporation said that investment incentives and facilitating the establishment of businesses attracted the interest of private sector investors. The growth of the Education sector in Qatar is driven by four main factors, namely, population growth, the increase in the number of School-age population, the increase in the income rate, and the increase in the private sector’s contribution to Education, in addition to the government support provided by the state to the Education sector in the general budget. The report, entitled (Education Industry in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries 2018), said that Qatar has introduced many reforms and made many investments in the Education sector, starting with the Qatar National Vision 2030, which Considers Education as a basis for the advancement of Society. As part of its long-term strategy, the government plans to provide Continuous financial and Human support to advance education for sustainable development. The progress in the education sector has attracted the attention of private sector participation, which has led to the establishment of a number of private Schools across the Country. The government allocated about 19 Billion riyals to the Education sector in the 2019 budget, equivalent to 9.4% of the total spending. The quality of Education in Qatar Continued to maintain its international levels and ranked in terms of quality of Education in 2017/2018, and the increase in the number of international Schools in Qatar was driven by the increase in the demand for private Schools, which facilitated access to high-quality Education and improved Education Infrastructure across the country. Qatar Continued to remain the best performer in the fields of basic and higher Education compared to the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter III

 

Uses of Communication Technology and Qatar’s Future Role in Distance Education:

 

 

 

 

Field Study Results:

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

First: the characteristics of the study sample

 

Second: the general results of the field study

 

Third: the study hypotheses

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

This part includes the results of the field study conducted by the Researcher, and its Community is determined in the Cities of the Country , and it was conducted on an intentional Sample, whose strength reached (400) single, whose ages ranged from (18) years or more, and that certain rules were taken into account in choosing that Sample , Including: Representing the Categories of Qatari Citizens (Males and Females), as well as asking individuals from the study Sample for general Information about Communication Technology. To ensure awareness of the Subject of the study. On the Mechanisms for presenting results, according to the study’s Questions and Hypotheses; It was built according to a number of axes that include the survey Questions, taking into account the standards that were set for them, as well as a Commitment to: Inferring the phenomena under study, and presenting analyzes about them and their explanations; Which would explain the Research problem accurately.

 

First: Characteristics of the Field Study Sample:

The Characteristics of the study Sample, especially the demographic variables (Gender, Age, and Education) and Socio-Economic level, can be illustrated as one of the independent variables of the study, as follows:

1 –  Gender: Gender is one of the basic independent variables for demographic variables, as some dependent variables depend on it, and according to the distribution of individuals in the Sample of the deliberate study, the numbers of Males and Females can be clarified according to the following figure:

The data of Figure 1 shows the high percentage of individuals in the study Sample from Males, as its strength reached (54%), compared to the Females of the study Sample, whose size reached (46%) of the total individuals of the study Sample. Commenting on the high number of Males compared to Females in the study Sample; It is close to the general census of the citizens of the State of Qatar in General. What is useful for researching the possibility of explicitly representing groups in Society, and for generalizing the results to the Country’s census. In this, it is indicated that some people, especially Females, are afraid of conducting the survey. This can be explained by the presence of some frauds on the “Internet”, and thus evading answering most questions, with some justifications. It was also revealed that there is a percentage that is not aware of the concept of investigation and its role in the development of scientific research. This is a very negative matter, as many developed societies are aware of their members The value of research and practical experiences, and sometimes even reaches the participation of some in those experiences; What increases their scientific and cultural knowledge and abilities towards most of life matters. According to this observation, scientific research institutions in the State of Qatar have a clear responsibility towards adopting awareness campaigns through all media for citizens, regardless of their groups, on the importance of scientific research and its role in the development of science in general, as well as encouraging these Citizens to volunteer and respond to what Researchers ask of them as long as they are under Legal and official cover from Qatari educational and research institutions.

2-Age:the age variable – one of the independent variables – for the study Sample was divided into four main categories, to include all age stages, taking into account that age starts from 18 years and over; This allows him to have a good background of knowledge, as well as an awareness of scientific and Research responsibility, and that variable can be explained, as follows:

 

The data of the previous figure, related to the ages of the individuals of the study sample, show that:

The first place was ranked (18-35) years with a percentage (57%) of the total number of individuals who responded to the survey, and the category (36-50) years came in second place with a percentage of (29%) of the total of these individuals, and the third place came in the category (51-60) years at a rate of (11%), and the fourth and last place came in the category of more than (60) years at a rate of (3%). . It follows from this that the high percentage of individuals in the study sample within the first age group from the age of (18-35) years old. Indicates that young people constitute a large proportion of their population base; This constitutes a good advantage as this category has been employed in society properly through its intellectual and cultural awareness of the course of life and living affairs, by relying on qualifying and training courses in all fields. This conclusion is consistent with the findings of Wael El-Sherbiny’s study (2014), ([75]) which confirmed the youth component. That it must be incorporated into most of the public policies related to them, and to empower them economically, politically, and in the media, in an attempt to raise and develop the values ​​of loyalty and belonging to the homeland. Moreover, the private sector must also be encouraged to participate in achieving youth development through various directions.

  • Education:

The Education Variable is one of the basic independent variables, as many dependent variables depend on it, and through it the correlation relationships between the study variables are also explained, as most of the results of previous studies confirm that individuals with higher Education compared to their counterparts with low Education are more knowledgeable. And a background with many details of things based on the volume of knowledge acquired and their successive experiences . The individuals in the study sample were divided into three basic educational levels, each level includes several sub-categories, which were subsequently grouped under one level according to the educational fields of the three levels, and this can be reviewed, as follows:

 

The data on the previous figure,

related to the distribution of individuals in the study sample according to the previously determined educational levels, reveal the following: A university education category (bachelor’s and bachelor’s) came first, with a percentage of (65%) of the total individuals in the study sample. That is, two-thirds of the study sample fall within the university education, and this was required that most individuals possess a good amount of education so that they are qualified to answer the survey questions according to their educational background. Postgraduate education (master’s and doctorate) ranked second, but with a wide difference compared to the university educational category, as the strength of that category reached (23%), which means serious representation of the educational elite within the study sample. In a way that gives a good measure of vitality to the results of the study according to in-depth viewpoints and a broad study of the ins and outs of educational events in the State of Qatar. Similar to the first and second educational levels; The third educational level related to intermediate education (below university) ranked last, at (12%) of the total number of individuals in the study sample, and that was also required that the representation of that level below. Especially since the questionnaire questions contain specialized and in-depth areas; What makes it difficult for this category to interact well with most of the questions, in addition to an important factor related to the difficulty of dealing with intermediate level education with communication technology, which requires a measure and more learning.

4- Socio-economic level:

similar to the previous variables; This variable is also considered of paramount importance in explaining many scientific and research phenomena related to communication technology and its role in the development of distance education. Because higher-ranking individuals have the financial capabilities to purchase and interact with technology, compared to others; This qualifies them to be more knowledgeable and experienced than their counterparts, and have the ability to understand a lot of their reality, and to decipher many of the events and challenges that they face, and the representation of that variable can be clarified according to the individuals of the study sample, as follows:

The data of the previous figure, related to the distribution of individuals in the study sample, is highlighted according to several factors (work or not, average income, place of residence, type of residence, ownership of housing, possession of some technological means, participation in a club, owning a car), and according to the accumulation of points obtained The respondent regarding his answers to these factors was divided into three levels and included in the categories of the socio-economic level, so that the highest points were for the high level, and vice versa, and based on that, the following was found:

  • The high socio-economic level ranked first with a percentage of (43%) of the total number of individuals in the study sample. This represents a high percentage compared to many Arab and foreign societies, which consider this category of the elite and the number of individuals belonging to it decreases. This information is given in light of the high Qatari economy compared to many economies of the world. What raises the average annual per capita income significantly, which is also confirmed by studies and reports of the presence of the State of Qatar within the first levels of countries, in terms of the increase in the per capita share and income of the State of Qatar from the GDP, and this is a reflection of the oil boom, and the state’s employment of it, which Contributed to savings and foreign currencies that contributed to pushing the wheel of the economy well over the past half century.
  • The average socio-economic level was ranked second at a rate of (36%), out of the total number of individuals in the study sample, which is an appropriate percentage that reaches one-third of the sample.online education.
  • The socio-economic level came in the third and last place with a rate of 21% of the number of individuals in the study sample. This requires Qatari officials to discover these groups and try to improve their material and social conditionsThis allows the state to preserve its social role in promoting the conditions of the marginalized.

Second: General results of the field study:

This part of the field study results includes a set of axes related to the Distance Education sector ([76]) in the State of Qatar ([77]), as well as the Roles of Communication Technology in developing that sector, and the efforts of Qatari officials in exploring the challenges of that sector and their capabilities in overcoming them. In a way that allows the development of the march of that sector, whose importance has been evident, especially after the spread of the Corona pandemic, and forcing everyone to work from home; For fear of increasing the spread of the disease and infection with it, especially after the ineffectiveness of the vaccines used to eliminate it in a full percentage, and this can be explained, as follows:

The First Axis:

the intensity of individuals’ use of the study sample for the content of the distance education sector provided by communication technology:

The creation of a strong Information Technology sector is the necessary prelude that no country can ignore, when it seeks to integrate into the Information age, and this pursuit is not limited to developed countries, as even the poorest countries must break into this new technological reality In order to communicate with the rest of the world, and to deal with it scientifically, economically and politically. It is reported that the Internet contributes to the promotion and improvement of e-learning through the use of E-mail that allows the exchange of messages and Information, and contributes to providing feedback from Students, as well as creating a whiteboard that encourages interaction among Students, and the possibility of creating a web page or a position for the virtual classroom, and includes The site includes various information about the class such as school decisions made, exercises, assignments and references.

In this axis – one of the general results of the field study – the rates of exposure and uses of individuals in the study sample to the contents of the distance education sector, which are provided through modern communication technology – one of the means of education([78])

– through a set of questions that were asked to these individuals, to measure the rate of that Use, and we show that, as follows:

1- Individuals using the study sample for the content of the distance education sector provided by communication technology: The widespread spread of modern communication technology, as well as the exchange of information, is an essential feature in contemporary societies, as there is agreement between information specialists that such a trend is; It could lead to a new millennium that relies heavily on the production and display of information products and services, in electronic form. This part highlights the use by individuals of the study sample for the remote educational content provided by the Qatari state through modern communication technology, which is a differentiated field that is more broad and comprehensive than the field of educational means, and the field of educational technology is expanding not the field of educational means, and this can be illustrated as follows ([79]):

The results of the previous figure, related to the study sample’s use of distance educational content provided by the state and through modern means of communication technology, show that (100%) of these individuals used this content, while the results did not appear (0%) did not use these means. From this it follows that most individuals in the study sample use educational technology, especially with regard to remote educational content, in which the chance of exposure to that content may be very likely in light of the increasing content of the “Internet”, in addition to confirming that these means possess various elements; Strongly aroused and attracted attention; Consequently, the percentage of exposure and use increased, which is a very positive thing, and it requires its officials – that is, those in charge of the educational process – to support these advantages and weigh them continuously. The previous result also confirms the popularity of these means and their popularity during the last ten years, and as we indicated earlier about the growing role of these means in moving the Arab Spring revolutions, as these means represented a new communication pattern outside the official communication pattern in which the state authority had a clear and main role, In addition to that, there are many other features that these media possess, related to visual and video dazzling elements, as well as richness elements for each medium separately. Thus, thanks to advanced technology, she was able to attract public attention.

This result is consistent with the results of Reem Zanati’s study (2018 CE) ([80]), to prove that the vast majority of students rely on social networking sites to follow up on education issues, and among the most important of these sites in order (Google, Facebook, and YouTube), and the forms of interaction and electronic participation are concentrated For students through these sites to express their opinions, and to engage in discussions with friends about the education issues at hand. This result is consistent with the findings of Iman Ezz El-Din (2017),

that (100 individuals), or (50.5%) of the study sample, use the communication technologies provided by the Cairo University Center for Open Education.

2 – The extent to which individuals in the study sample use the content of the distance education field provided by communication technology:

The study sample individuals were asked to determine the extent of their use of the educational content provided remotely, depending on the means of modern communication technology, and their answers came as follows:

The results of the previous figure,

regarding the extent to which individuals in the study sample use remote educational content provided through modern means of communication technology, reveal that (44%) of these individuals always use that content, and (36%) of them indicated that they sometimes look at these contents. While 20% of them are included in the last stage of the rare use of these contents. The previous results confirm the high rate of exposure to communication technology, especially the educational content remotely, and this is explained in the light of the increasing social aspect of the “Internet”, which enabled many people, on the expansion of their geographical places, to communicate, participate, and interact with each other, as the role of the “Internet was not limited “On that aspect only, but it has become one of the most powerful methods used by civil society organizations to eradicate the monopoly of information. This can be explained in light of the acquisition of the new means of communication technology on a variety of positive elements that increase the attractiveness, including: permanent availability throughout the twenty-four hours, as well as easy access to it, in addition to its low cost compared to other means, and finally, its enjoyment of many Another advantage is in the form and content of the director. In general, these results are consistent with the findings of Kholoud Abdullah (2018) ([81]). Which clarified that “the Internet” is social media; It became a means to access information and news, in addition to its awareness-raising role in various fields. These results also agree with the results of Hana Qarni’s study (2015 CE) ([82]), which confirmed that three-quarters of the study sample are keen on using the Internet, especially social networking sites, on a permanent basis.

3- The number of days per week that individuals use the study sample. The content of the field of distance education: Individuals were asked about the number of days per week that they use educational content for the distance education sector, through modern communication technology, and their answers came as follows:

The contents of the previous figure, related to the number of days per week that individuals use the study sample for the content of the distance education sector, highlight that (45%) of these individuals use it (from one to three days), and (37%) use it (every day of the week). And (18%) use it from (three to seven days). It is noted from these results that they agree with the results of the previous one, regarding the moderation of the contents of the means of communication technology for the distance education sector; What requires from those responsible for the education sector to support these means through several tracks related to raising efficiency and qualification to attract followers, especially as modern communication technology can be employed to play a wide role in the field of distance education. ([83])

4- Average time during which individuals follow the study sample the content of the field of distance education: This point is related to the review of the number of hours in which individuals use the study sample for the content of the field of distance education through modern means of communication technology, as follows:

individuals in the study sample in using the educational content of the distance education sector in modern means of communication, show that (69%) of these individuals use it for (less than an hour) per day, among (20%) of them they They use this content (from one hour to two hours) daily, while (11%) of them use it (more than two hours) daily. It is noted from these results that the time exposure – that is, the hourly rate – to the content of communication technology in relation to the distance education sector is different, and despite the average use in general of that content by the individuals of the study sample, the temporary use has decreased significantly, and the reasons vary in Explanation of this result, and perhaps the most important of which is due to the absence of broad qualification and competitiveness capabilities for educational content presented by means of communication technology, compared to other content, such as entertainment content, and this is considered a natural matter that is avoided in the future in a cumulative manner with the acquisition of experiences of display and suspense, and the low cost, especially The goal of distance education is non-profit service. These results are consistent with the findings of the study of Ghada Mamdouh (2017 CE) ([84]), which showed that the youth of the study sample use the Internet seven days a week in first place with a rate of (76%), followed by young people who use the Internet. From four to six days at a rate (11%), and in the fourth place came those who used two to three days at a rate (4.5%). These results are also consistent with the results of Hassan Ali Qassem (2017) ([85]) study, which showed that more than (50%) of the study sample watched satellite channels daily as one of the means of new communication technology. This result also agrees with the results of Safa Mahmoud Othman (2007 AD) ([86]) that the high exposure rate to the Nile Channel (one of the traditional media) is more than three hours (6.9%), the average exposure is less than three hours (2.9%), and the low exposure (90.3%).

The Second Axis:

The motives of the uses of communication technology in the field of distance education:

5- Advantages that communication technology can add in the field of distance education: The study sample individuals were asked to rank four more features that communication technology could add in the field of distance education, and the answers were as follows:

Table No. (1)

Arranging the most advantages that communication technology can add in the field of remote communication

the weight Likely Fourth category third category  second category first category                                      Order

Features or  category

% Points
23.7 1001 7 23 19      152 Raise the degree of communication between the elements of the educational process
23 985 27 37 136        42 Increasing the level of effectiveness among the elements of the educational process
20 846 29 74 67         49 Reducing  pressures for the Student
17.6 744 32 52 31         48 Reducing pressure for the Teacher
15 632 19 15 19 34 Reducing pressure for School Administration
100 4208  ([87])Weighted sum of weights

 

The data of the previous table, related to the advantages that communication technology can add in the field of distance education, show the following:

The phrase “raising the degree of communication between the elements of the educational process” came in first place with relative weight (24%), and came in second place “increasing the level Effectiveness among the elements of the educational process, with a relative weight of (23%), and the phrase “reducing the number of stresses for the student” was ranked third, with a relative weight of (20%), and the phrase “reducing the number of stresses for the teacher” came in fourth place with a relative weight. The amount of (18%), and finally the phrase “reducing the number of pressures for school administration”, with a relative weight of (15%). Thus, education represents one of the main pillars in the relationship of information technology with society as a whole and its relationship with this technology is getting more and more reliable day after day, whether in terms of being a means of education or an educational material or a tool to support school and educational administration, and the computer can have a role in the development of education if that is prepared and done. Preparing students, qualifying teachers, Educating School and Educational Administration, preparing Software, and modifying curricula and teaching methods ([88]).

Thus, the most important characteristic of the use of information technology in education can be clarified, the following:

  • It provides the learner with specific immediate Feedback, based on the principle of immediate reinforcement.
  • It takes into account individual differences depending on the appreciation of Education and pursues experiences.
  • It can be used in curative teaching.
  • Providing educational opportunities such as Distance Education and Open Education.
  • Dealing with dialogue and direction with the learner.

Diversity in programs and continuous development. In general, there are multiple advantages in distance education, which appear clear when compared to traditional education, as the student does not move from his place, but rather that the curriculum is the one that moves from one place to another and this saves a lot of time for the student, and the cost of moving curricula and courses is significantly less than the cost Student transportation, and these advantages are very important not only to rich western countries, but to third world countries alike, and distance education and training are seen as a pattern of expensive labor provision, and in the field of education, employment here is represented by the teacher, who is replaced by a mediator, let it be Computer or ready-made Courses, and this does not mean that the teacher has become without a role, but his role has changed to become a guide and guide, and before that the designer of these ready-made courses and the producer of them ([89]).

It can be indicated in this to the findings of the results of Sally Ahmed (2018) ([90]) study, from the youth’s belief that modern communication technology meets their needs and facilitates some tasks for them, such as knowing the news, following up on current events, or using them. In education, for example), and external motivation: that these young people have external motives for self-development, learning new things, or engaging in political and social life, which gave them the motivation to fulfill these needs.

6- The extent to which individuals in the study sample benefit from the content of the distance education field provided by communication technology:

The study sample individuals were asked about the extent of their benefit from the content of the distance education field that communication technology can provide, and this can be explained, as follows:

The data of the previous figure,

related to the extent to which individuals in the study sample benefit from the content of means of communication technology related to the content of the distance education sector, show that (56%) of these individuals benefit greatly, and that (27%) of them benefit to some extent, as indicated (17 %) Of these individuals indicate that they do not benefit from this content. It is evident from this that the individuals of the study sample believe that the Qatari state’s efforts were clearly successful in improving the educational service provided on the means of modern communication technology, and even improving it well, which contributed to the increase in dazzling presentation methods, which greatly enriches the scientific material presented, and the possibilities of interaction With her on the part of the students who follow her, and overcoming the clarification challenges. This result confirms that the student who interacts with the computer throughout his studies period: He will deepen the skills required to teach him, and direct contact with the computer will provide teachers an opportunity for experimentation and a direct sense of the educational possibilities that information technology can provide. Accordingly, there are many characteristics of remote e-learning, as follows: Creating an interactive environment during the learning process through the multiplicity of technologies used, such as printed texts, images and videos, as well as not being restricted to a time or place, as it can be used anywhere in the world, seven days a week, for a period of ( 24) hours a day, in addition to teaching large numbers in a short time and compensating for the shortage of academic cadres, and it also leads to expanding the scope of education for different groups of society, regardless of age, social and economic level or health status, as everyone can continue his education, and have multiple sources Knowledge as a result of communicating with various internet sites and dealing with thousands of websites, databases and scientific sources. This result is consistent with the findings of Mahitab Jamal Abd al-Salam (2018) ([91])study regarding the importance of using educational video clips in self-education, as the respondents expressed their satisfaction with the method of learning using video more than traditional education.

7- Benefits of the content of the distance education field provided by communication technology from the viewpoint of individuals. Study sample: The study sample was asked individuals a set of expressions expressing the benefits of the content of the distance education field that can be provided by the means of modern communication technology, and asked them to put their opinion in approval or rejection, and we explain that as follows:

Table No. (1)

Benefits of the content in the field of distance education provided by communication technology from the viewpoint of the study sample

sequence standard deviation Average Disagree Neutral Agree Phrases Nr
% K % K % K
1 .651 2.27 9 36 42.2 169 48.7 195 It reflects the views of professors and students on important topics and issues 1
3 .657 2.24 20

7

83 31.7 127 47.5 190 Knowing new information in different specialties 2
2 .721 2.21 15.7 63 39 156 45 180 Learn a  new skills 3
6 .729 1.42 73.2 293 15 60 11.7 47 The ability to understand reality and know the experiences of other countries 4
4 .762 1.35 20 80 35 140 45 180 Providing a rich subject in the academic courses at universities 5
5 .769 1.19 29.2 117 25.7 103 45 180 Lectures are presented in an interesting and easy way 6
2.9 general Average

 

The results of the previous table, related to the opinions of individuals in the study sample, about the benefits of the content of the distance education field that modern communication technology can provide:

  • Approval of (49%) on the phrase “reflecting the views of professors and students on important topics and issues.” (42%) answers were neutral, while 9% rejected it.
  • (48%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “knowledge of new information in different specialties,” while (32%) of the answers got the neutral form, while (21%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (45%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “learning new skills,” while the answers (39%) were neutral, and (16%) rejected it.
  • (73%) of the individuals in the study sample raised the phrase “the ability to understand reality and know the experiences of other countries,” while the answers of (15%) were neutral, while (12%) of these individuals agreed with them.
  • (45%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “providing a rich subject in university curricula,” while the answers (35%) were neutral, while (20%) rejected it.

F – Approval of (45%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “giving lectures in an interesting and easy manner,” while (29%) rejected it, while the answers (26%) of them were neutral to that statement.

This refers to the importance of including information technology-related courses within the study plans for teacher preparation, and considering them a major requirement of the preparation programs. This formula considers the use of information technology courses and their addition to teacher preparation programs, and in this format technology can be used as educational aids (teaching aids) . These results are consistent with the results of Kholoud Abdullah (2018) ([92]) study, which confirmed that Internet applications and social media have a great impact on the development of political awareness among Saudi women, the study sample. Which confirms that it is not limited to the entertainment and social role only.

These results also agree with the findings of the study of Laman Muhammad (2018) ([93]), that “the Internet” and the technological tools it contains; It greatly contributes to influencing the increase in the amount of information among its users, in addition to offering values ​​and ideas that contribute to addressing community issues. Zainab Ibrahim’s study (2013 AD) ([94]) concluded that educational YouTube clips provided learners with quick experiences with their opinions in the presented video clips and experiences, and provides flexibility and an attractive way to display lessons through video files, in addition to the ease of uploading video files to it and the possibility of classifying them into private and public. Permissions to view it; Which helped increase the positive trend of students towards using it in self-education.

The Third Axis:

The role of the State of Qatar in developing the field of distance education using communication technology:

8- Individuals’ opinions of the study sample on the roles of the State of Qatar in developing the field of distance education: In this regard, it can be referred to the Qatar Education Vision 2030, which aims at the rapid and strong advancement of Qatari education, so that it becomes the best in the world, as after a few years, less than five years, the Qatari state has managed to rank fourth in the world in the field of education, and this is a success. Great, as it achieved in a short period of a large program that is still in progress, and the state is still pumping a lot of money for its own education. Similar to the previous question, the study sample individuals were asked a number of statements related to the roles of the State of Qatar in developing the field of distance education using communication technology, and the results of that question can be reviewed, as follows:

Table No. (2)

Opinions of individuals in the study sample on the roles of Qatar in developing the field of distance education

 

standard deviation Average Disagree Neutral Agree Phrases Nr
% K % K % K
0.633 2.41 8.2 33 44.2 177 47.5 190 Availability of all educational Tools and modern Teaching Techniques 1
.628 2.39 6.5 26 45 180 48.2 193 The Presence of Specialists and Technicians to Operate educational Technologies 2
0.621 2.37 7.5 30 45 180 47.5 190 It works on sharing Cooperation Efforts between Internal and External educational Institutions 3
.559 2.36 3.5 14 46.7 187 49.7 199 It works to Finance Distance Education Programs 4
0.547 2.32 20 80 32.5 130 62.5 250 It imports Communication Technology for use in Distance Education 5
0.534 2.29 5 20 50 200 45 180 Using Communication Technology to improve the Quality of Distance Education 6
0.526 2.24 8.5 34 41.5 166 50 200 Supports Research and Scientific Funding 7
0.519 2.22 2.7 11 79.7 199 47.5 190 Mothers and Housewives are Exempt from Tuition Fees 8
0.517 2.18 5 20 42.5 170 52.5 210 Providing Distance Education Programs without Tuition Fees 9
0.514 2.59 2.5 10 37.5 150 60 240 The State is Increasing its Efforts to Deliver Internet Services to Everyone 10
0.511 2.51 3.7 15 46.5 186 49.7 199 The State Reduces the Cost of Internet Services 11
2.9 general Average

 

Approval of (48%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “the availability of all educational means and modern teaching techniques,” while the answers of (44%) of them were neutral, while they rejected it (8%).

  • (48%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “the presence of specialists and technicians to operate educational technologies,” and the answers (45%) of them were neutral, and they rejected it (7%).
  • Approval of (49%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “working on sharing cooperation efforts between internal and external educational institutions,” and the answers of (45%) were neutral, while they rejected it (8%).
  • (50%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “working to finance distance education programs,” and (47%) of them had neutral answers, while (4%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (63%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “import communication technology for use in distance education,” while the answers of (33%) of them were neutral, and they rejected it (20%).
  • (45%) of the study sample agreed on the phrase “communication technology is used well to improve the quality of distance education,” and (50%) of them gave neutral answers, while (5%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (50%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “supporting the financing of research and scientific operations,” and the answers of (42%) were neutral, among whom (9%) refused.
  • (48%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “mothers and housewives exempt from tuition fees”, while the answers (80%) of them were neutral, and they rejected it (3%).
  • Approval of (53%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “providing distance education programs without tuition fees,” while the answers of (43%) of them were neutral, while (5%) of them rejected it.
  • (60%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “the state’s efforts to deliver Internet services to all are increasing”, and the answers (38%) of them were neutral, and (3%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (50%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “the state reduces

the cost of Internet services,” while the answers (47%) of them were neutral, while (4%) rejected it.

 

The Fourth Axis:

Assessing the efforts of the State of Qatar in developing the field of distance education using communication technology:

9- Individuals evaluation of the study sample of the efforts of the Qatari state in developing the field of distance education using communication technology:

The State of Qatar has a distinguished role in the development of Distance Education, which developed with the development of the whole World in that field, starting with the use of mail, then it came to the point that Communication between the Teacher and his Students became through Television and Radio stations, and later the real breakthrough was the discovery of the Internet. It also started with a simple “e-mail”, until the matter developed; So there are websites specialized in this field, which have facilitated the process of Communication and learning, as well as providing discussion sessions and direct contacts through the sites and Programs specialized in this, and the opinions of individuals in the study sample can be clarified and evaluated for the efforts of the Qatari state in the field of Distance Education, as follows:

The data of the previous figure, related to the individuals’ evaluation of the study sample of the efforts of the Qatari state in developing the field of Distance Education using Communication technology, show that (54%) of the study sample individuals have positive Evaluation of these efforts, and (32%) of them have neutral responses, while (14) %) Of them rated negatively for these efforts. It is noted from this the positive Evaluation of the efforts of the Qatari Government in the field of Distance Education, as this confirms the credibility of the efforts put forward to achieve the goals of sustainable development that Qatar and all Countries of the world seek until 2030, to achieve equality in Education and Rights, as Qatar has multiple roles in this field, as Qatar supports distinguished Academic Researchers in the field of scientific Research, as well as graduate Students, Teachers and School Administrators, with the aim of promoting Research and knowledge production, improving educational practices, and developing educational Policies. This is indicated by the development in Communications and Information Technology; It led to a review of government performance and its Educational functions, and the services it provides to sectors of Society, whether the public or other Organizations and Institutions, and how they keep pace with the requirements of the times. Therefore, communication and information technology Constitutes a new sector that is added to the restructuring of the modern national Economies of developed and developing Countries alike ([95]).

This result differs with the results of Nada Abdul Qadir (2017) ([96]) study, which concluded that Qataris feel a high degree of satisfaction with the utility sector, but are less satisfied with education. And that’s when it comes to public services. We find here that Qataris, despite their dissatisfaction with the level of education in independent schools, seem uninterested in the other education options provided by the voucher system, which was launched recently. This illustrates the complex reality of the process of satisfying the citizen in general but more specifically, in the local context where it appears that the citizen is strongly linked to their traditional values.

10- The degree of satisfaction of individuals in the study sample with the efforts of the Qatari state in the field of developing distance education using communication technology:

The results of the previous figure, related to the degree of Satisfaction of individuals in the study sample, with the efforts of the Qatari state in the field of developing Distance Education using Communication Technology, show that (59%) of them are highly satisfied with those efforts, while (27%) of them are satisfied with a moderate degree of that Efforts, while (14%) of them showed a low level of Satisfaction with these efforts. It is noted that this result is consistent with the results of the previous question regarding the positive evaluation of the efforts of the Qatari Government in supporting the field of Distance Education; Consequently, that educational field obtained a great degree of satisfaction on the part of the individuals who study sample, and this also accords with the ranking of the State of Qatar according to the quality index of University Education, which comes first in the Arab World, and fourth in the World, thus registering an unprecedented number for any Arab country in the global, regional and Arab ranking for Education. ; One of the reasons for this progress is the optimal use of modern Communication Technology in managing the educational process in general, whether on a regular basis or remotely. This result is consistent with the findings of the study of Reem Abdullah (2020 AD) ([97]), which proves the results of the effectiveness of the strategy used in developing Research writing Skills to a very large degree, as the study sample is largely satisfied with it, which confirms that the blended learning according to the experiment strategy ; Contribute to increasing Communication and interaction, and reduce stress in the Course.

The Fifth Axis:

the effects of using telecommunications technology in the field of distance education:

11- Effects of Using Telecommunications Technology in the Field of Distance Education in the State of Qatar:

The Educational System is part of the Societal System, as it is influenced by the direction in which the community believes and practices; Consequently, the effects of those Societal variables are reflected, to one degree or another, on the efficiency of all community Institutions, including educational Institutions, including these Institutions in terms of new Technology. Accordingly, the study sample was presented to individuals a number of statements related to the effects of using Telecommunications Technology in the field of Distance Education in the State of Qatar, and we explain that, as follows:

Table No. (3)

The opinions of the study sample individuals on the effects of using Communication Technology in the field of Distance Education

standard deviation Average Disagree Neutral Agree Phrases Nr
% K % K % K
.538 2.39 3.5 14 32.5 130 64.2 257 Increased Skills in using Computer Programs 1
.531 2.41 3.5 14 35 140 61.5 246 The Development of the Ability to obtain Information from the Internet 2
.523 2.44 7.5 20 37.5 150 57.5 230 Educational Programs are becoming more Flexible 3
.506 2.47 6.2 25 40 160 53.7 215 Saves Teachers and Learners time 4
.501 2.52 5 20 47.5 190 47.5 190 Efforts to Clarify educational Curricula intensify 5
.490 2.54 5 20 42.5 170 50 200 Increasing Student Participation in Academic Courses 6
.482 2.58 5.7 23 46.7 187 47.5 190 Easy access to Information Sources 7
.479 2.58 10 40 40 160 49 196 Learning at any time without being restricted to the Time Factor 8
.466 2.62 11 44 41.7 167 47.7 191 Easily Communicate between Classmates and the subject Professor 9
.452 2.64 4 16 46.2 185 49.7 199 Providing Practical Study in the Academic Subjects that need this 10
2.32 general Average

 

The results of the previous table, related to the effects of communication technology in the field of distance education from the viewpoint of the individuals, the study sample, show the following:

  • Approval of (64%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “increasing skills in using computer programs,” while the answers (34%) of them were neutral, while (4%) of them rejected the phrase.
  • (62%) of the study sample agreed on the phrase “the development of capabilities to obtain information from the Internet, and the answers (35%) of them were neutral, while (4%) of them rejected it.
  • Approval of (58%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “educational programs have become more flexible,” (38%) of them whose answers were neutral, while their refusal was important (8%).
  • (54%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “teachers and learners’ time saved”, and (40%) answers were neutral, while (6%) rejected it.
  • (48%) of the study sample agreed with the phrase “efforts to clarify educational curricula”, and (48%) of them answered neutral, while (5%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (50%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “increased participation of Students in academic courses,” while the answers of (43%) of them were neutral, and (5%) of them rejected it.
  • (48%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “easy access to Information sources”, while the answers (47%) of them were neutral, and (6%) rejected it.
  • (49%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “learning at any time without being bound by the time factor.” The answers of (40%) were neutral, while (10%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (48%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “easy Communication between Classmates and the professor of the subject,” while the answers (42%) of them were neutral, and (11%) of them rejected it.
  • (50%) of the study sample agreed on the phrase “providing practical study in the study subjects that need this.” (46%) answers were neutral, while (4%) rejected it. These results are consistent with the results of the study of Abraham’s emotions (2019 AD), as the study concluded that the third Millennium is called the Element of modern Information and Communication Technology, and it has become the provision of wide services to access Information at any time and place, and in the fastest time, with the different role of the Teacher in the System Distance Education with the use of modern Technologies so that every Student can advance according to his level of Study, and this gives Students more opportunity to absorb their Lessons than the traditional System.

 

These results are consistent with the findings of the study of Khalil Ibrahim Al-Saadat (2018), that the use of distance education in the college Programs. It will lead to developing the skill of using the Computer and obtaining Information from Information Networks. It will also make the college’s Programs be flexible, as well as save Teachers and Learners ’time and efforts, in addition to covering wide geographical Areas.

The Sixth Axis:

the Success of Communication Technology in Developing the Field of Distance Education in Qatar:

12 – Individuals’ Opinions of the study Sample on the Success of Communication Technology in developing the field of Distance Education in Qatar:

The following figure shows the opinion of the individuals of the study sample about the extent of the contribution of modern means of Communication Technology to the development of Distance Education in the State of Qatar:

The data of the previous figure, related to the opinions of the individuals of the study sample in the contribution of modern means of communication technology in the development of the field of distance education in the State of Qatar, confirm that all of them (100%) confirm the success of modern communication technology in developing that sector, while none of the respondents showed (0%) No objection to the success of these methods. The previous result shows the success of the efforts of the Qatari state in developing the field of distance education using modern communication technology, as these efforts escalate every day, and what is evidenced by the launch of the Qatari vision 2030, which is trying in various ways to achieve, and in all fields Especially educational, and the resultant Qatari education ranked first in the Arab world and fourth internationally, in the international education index. All this confirms sincere efforts to improve the educational environment and accelerate its movement, in order to meet the needs of the labor market and contribute to the development of the country in general.

 

13- Opinions of Individuals in the Study Sample on the Extent to which Communication Technology Contributes to Developing the Field of Distance Education in Qatar:

After ensuring that all individuals in the study sample agree on the success of modern means of Communication Technology in developing the Distance Education sector in the State of Qatar, they were asked to determine the extent of that success from their point of view, and this can be explained as follows:

The results of the previous figure, related to the opinions of individuals in the study sample, on the extent of the success of Communication Technology in developing the Distance Education sector, reveal that (55%) of these individuals believe that the means of modern communication Technology “succeeded to a large extent” in developing the Distance Education sector. Also (27%) of them indicated its “success to some extent”, while (18%) of them indicated its “success to a low extent” in developing that sector. This result is consistent with the findings of the study of Heba Abd al-Latif (2017 AD) regarding the existence of a positive effect of Communication Technology (a Multimedia Forum) on the development of learning outcomes among Students of the General Diploma in Education, Division of Distance Education.

 

 

 

 

The Seventh Axis:

the extent to which educational and research institutions in the State of Qatar benefit from communication technology:

 

14- Individuals’ perception of the study sample of the extent to which educational and research institutions in the State of Qatar benefit from modern communication technology:

The study sample was asked a number of phrases related to the benefit of educational and research institutions in the State of Qatar from modern communication technology, and their answers came as follows:

Table No. (4)

Individuals’ perception of the study sample of the extent to which educational and research institutions benefit from communication technology

standard deviation Average Disagree Neutral Agree Phrases Nr
% K % K % K
.471 2.26 5 20 32.5 130 62.5 250 Providing Money for Transportation for the Elements of the educational Process 1
.486 2.41 5.5 22 52.5 210 42 168 The Possibility of covering wide Geographical Areas 2
.504 2.31 3.5 14 48.7 195 47.7 191 Increase Communication Capabilities with Teachers from other Countries 3
.517 2.22 5.2 21 47.2 189 47.5 190 The Possibility of educating Women from Home without leaving it 4
.523 2.11 3.5 14 46.2 185 50 200 Saving Expenses for Printing Books and School Tools 5
.542 2.9 3 12 42.2 169 54.7 219 Reducing the Mobility Risks of the Elements of the educational Process 6
2.52 general Average

 

The results of the previous table, related to the individuals ’perceptions of the study sample, indicate the extent to which educational and research institutions in the State of Qatar have benefited from modern communication technology, as follows:

  • Approval of (63%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “providing money for transportation and transportation for the elements of the educational process,” while the answers of (33%) of them were neutral, while (5%) of them rejected it.
  • (42%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “the possibility of being covered by wide geographical areas.” The answers of (53%) of them were neutral, while (6%) of them rejected that statement.
  • Approval of (48%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “raising the capabilities of communicating with teachers from other countries,” while the answers of (49%) of them were neutral, while they rejected it (4%).
  • (48%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “the possibility of educating women from home without leaving it,” and the answers (47%) of them were neutral, while (5%) of them rejected it.
  • Approval of (50%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “saving expenses for printing books and school tools,” while the answers (46%) were neutral, and (4%) rejected it.
  • (55%) of the study sample agreed on the phrase “reducing the risks of movement for the elements of the educational process,” while the answers (42%) were neutral, while (3%) rejected it.

 

Thus, it is ensured that modern communication technology can provide many elements for the development of the educational process, including that education be more (productive, speed, more equality, more specific, better curricula) as it can contribute to increasing the areas of expertise that the learner pursues and raises the efficiency of teachers It encourages self-education, which leads to improving the quality of education, and even provides multiple channels of knowledge, addresses individual differences between learners, as well as assistance in delivering scientific material to minds.

These results are also consistent with the findings of the study of Khalil Ibrahim Al-Saadat (2018 CE) ([98]) that women can choose what suits them from the courses without leaving their home, if the means and methods of distance education are available, and that the woman will be able to learn a lot of family and social information. And medical, and that the educated will be able to address her teacher from a distance and discuss educational matters with her.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Eighth Axis:

studying the causes of problems that constitute an obstacle to the maximum benefit from communication technology and distance education:

15- Reasons for not making effective use of communication technology in the distance learning sector:

The study sample individuals were asked a number of statements related to the reasons for not making effective use of Communication Technology in the Distance Education sector, and they were asked to rank the three most important reasons regarding them, and their answers came as follows:

Table No. (5)

Individuals ranking the study sample regarding the most important reasons for not benefiting from Communication Technology in the Distance Education sector

the weight Likely first category Second category Third category  
% Points
21.2 731 191 60 81 There are problems on the Internet
15.6 539 122 118 41 Do not provide new information
10.5 364 44 30 99 Its duration is short and insufficient
6.3 219 64 120 42 There is no effective interaction between students and professors
4.7 163 44 33 19 Incorrect submission dates
4.3 150 41 54 47 The change in broadcast dates is made without notice
4.1 142 33 12 13 Decreased means clarification
3.9 137 21 9 17 Printed books and notes are better than distance education
100 3445 Weighted sum of weights

 

The results of the previous table related to the individual ranking of the study sample indicate the three most important reasons for not benefiting from communication technology in the distance education sector, the following: In the first order came the phrase “the existence of problems in the Internet”, with a reference weight of (21%), and it came in the second order The phrase “do not provide new information”, with a weighted ability (16%), and in the third order came the phrase “short and insufficient presentation time”, with a weighted weight of (11%), and in the fourth place came the phrase “there is no effective interaction between students and teachers.” With a relative weight of (6%), and the phrase “inappropriate dates for submission” came in fifth place with a reference weight of (5%), and the phrase “change in broadcast dates will be made without mentioning”, with a reference weight of (4%), The phrase “low used demonstration tools” came in seventh place with a capacity weight of (4%), and the phrase “printed books and notes is better than distance education” came in last place, with a ratio of (4%). It is noted from the previous results, that the distance education system may reveal many facts, including the challenges that current education methods may suffer from, and in parallel with that, the distance education system also has its pros and cons, and it is necessary to pay close attention to them in light of The changes of the current era, in which communication technology has imposed many solutions to overcome the traditional methods of education, through which it is possible to save a lot of government budgets, while increasing the percentage of supply and clarification for students Thus the education system is more effective than before. In addition to this, the isolation provided by distance education; Students are far from their teachers. They do not have a direct source of help other than the abstract objective facts inherent in printed materials. It also encourages and relies on preservation in education. The student who memorizes has opportunities for success and the problem of boredom resulting from metaphysical memorization may lead to an occurrence. High rates of school dropout. In this, he mentions the role of the means of communication and the media in relation to the school and the educational process, the great challenges that must be faced as follows: The school cannot remain away from the means of communication and media, but rather it must take them into teaching through the use of television and audio recordings, as well as that the school operates To find areas for cooperation between them and what these means offer within the framework of a system that allows them to contribute to achieving some of the goals of education by providing programs that contribute to enriching educational curricula, and educational institutions contribute to conducting studies about these means and their educational and psychological effects in order to improve the methods of use. Among them, in addition to preparing students with the necessary expertise to choose the best among these means ([99]).

These results are consistent with the findings of the study of Sally Ahmed (2018) ([100]), the lack of awareness and culture of e-learning and distance education among most students, in addition to the failure to update some of the pages of some colleges in the university, which leads to disruption in some cases, please. About some students’ lack of respect for the group’s goals and their publication of topics and pictures that have nothing to do with the purpose for which they were created, in addition to the difficulty in controlling group members, and violating the teacher’s privacy by sending messages to his personal page instead of putting them on the professional page.

 

The Ninth Axis:

means of developing and future development of the scientific and educational aspects for the advancement of the Qatari state in the fields of communication technology and distance education:

Establishing an advanced education related to information technology or educational technology or teaching affects the civilization shift in an open future world, and from this point of view it is not possible to separate the education process from advanced information technology without taking into account the content of each of them and their impact on each other ([101]).

The development of the role of the State of Qatar in the distance education process according to the individuals ’vision of the study sample, as follows.

 

16- Individuals’ view of the study sample of the technical elements that could have the developmental and future development of the distance education sector:

The study sample was presented to individuals a number of technical Elements that could have the developmental and future development of the scientific and Educational aspects for the advancement of the Qatari state in the field of Distance Education using modern Communication Technology, and the answers of the individuals came as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table No. (6)

The opinions of individuals, the study sample, on the technical Elements that must be available to develop the field of Distance Education

 

standard deviation Average Disagree Neutral Agree Phrases Nr
% K % K % K
0.514 2.72 6.7 27 44.7 179 48.5 194 Increase the level of Clarity of Sound and Picture 1
0.511 2.51 4.7 19 47.5 190 47.7 191 Increase the use of educational Film Materials 2
0.532 2.57 1 4 42.7 171 56.2 225 Try to use graphs and figures 3
0.491 2.59 1.2 5 42.2 169 56.5 226 Centering Speed in explaining the educational Material 4
0.485 2.39 2.4 10 40 160 57.5 230 Activate the Participation of Students and the Teacher 5
0.489 2.41 2.2 9 57.5 230 40 160 Presentation of practical and practical Examples 6
0.531 2.47 0.2 1 64.5 258 35.2 141 Continuous updating of educational Material Contents 7
0.467 2.68 3.2 13 37 148 34.7 139 Establishing an Electronic library in all educational Fields 8
0.732 2.46 7.2 29 32.2 129 63 252 Providing the possibility of Communication between Students of one Group 9
2.31 general Average

 

 

The results of the previous table, especially the individuals of the study sample, reveal the technical elements that can have the developmental and future development of the field of distance education using communication technology, and the answers came as follows:

  • Approval of (49%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “raising the level of sound and image posture,” and the answers of (45%) were neutral, and (7%) rejected it.
  • (48%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “increasing the use of educational film materials,” while the answers of (48%) were neutral, and (5%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (56%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “trying to use graphs and figures,” while the answers of (43%) of them were neutral, while (1%) of them rejected it.
  • (57%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “speeding up the explanation of the educational material,” and the answers of (42%) were neutral, while (1%) of them rejected that statement.
  • (58%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “activating participation on the part of students and teachers,” and the answers of (40%) of them were neutral, while (2%) of them rejected it.
  • Approval of (40%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “review of practical and practical examples,” and the answers of (58%) were neutral, while (2%) rejected it.
  • (35%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “continuous updating of the contents of the educational material,” and the answers of (65%) were neutral, while (0.2%) of them rejected that statement.
  • (35%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “establishing an electronic library in all educational fields,” while (37%) answers were neutral, while (3%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (63%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “providing the possibility of communication between students of one group,” and (32%) their answers were neutral towards this phrase, while (7%) rejected it.

The importance of these results related to the means of development comes in light of what Latifa Ali (2017 CE) ([102]) suggested, that it is necessary to reform the educational system with all its inputs and outputs, especially in light of the current system’s inability to meet the challenges posed by information and communication technology and the world’s transformation from an industrial society. To an information society.

These results are consistent with the results of Karim Awad Brissem’s (2017) study on the importance of educational visual communication methods in the process of teaching the materials established in the basic stages to teachers of all scientific specializations in order to Communicate Information, ideas and experiences in a better and easier way Being an integral part of the other elements of the educational process, such as the curriculum, methods and requirements, and it works to involve all the senses of the learner to achieve the educational process.

This is in line with the findings of the study (2016, Robinson, R., Molenda, M., & Rezabek) ([103]) that the implementation of real learning in the Internet is possible through intended educational strategies and appropriate educational techniques, but through an educational approach, as She also emphasized that barriers to implementation still exist, and mechanisms and ways to overcome them through practice and experience must be explored.

17- Individuals’ view of the study sample of the administrative elements that can develop in the future and development of the distance education sector:

To raise the level of effectiveness of communication technology in the educational field, it is necessary to take advantage of all the possibilities that can be used in the process of design, selection and use, and these capabilities include the existence of an administrative system in the educational institution cooperative and understanding, provided that its impact is reflected primarily on the teacher, and the educational process in general. Accordingly, the study sample individuals were asked to define their opinions with approval and rejection of a number of administrative elements through which the development, development and future of the field of education sector could be developed via distance using communication technology.

Table No. (7)

The opinions of individuals, the study sample, on the administrative elements that must be available to develop the field of distance education sector

 

standard deviation Average Disagree Neutral Agree Phrases Nr
% K % K % K
0.691 1.68 25.2 101 35.2 141 39.5 158 Increasing educational Material Times 1
0.821 2.17 27.2 109 30.2 121 42 168 Announce Broadcast Dates and Adhere to them 2
0.839 2.23 19.7 79 30 120 50.2 201 Re-Broadcast educational Materials more than once 3
0.845 2.27 25.7 103 34 136 40.2 161 Qualifying educational Subject Teachers to deal with Technology 4
0.851 2.32 12.5 50 18.5 74 69 276 The Need to improve Internet Services 5
0.863 2.48 7.7 31 30 120 62.2 249 Increasing the number of Technological Means used in the Field of Distance Education 6
0.872 2.52 17 68 32.7 131 50.5 201 Increased officials Answering Inquiries 7
2.09 general Average

 

The results of the previous table, relating to the administrative elements through which the field of distance education sector can be developed, developed and future using communication technology, confirm the following:

 

  • Approval of (40%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “increasing the times of educational materials,” while the answers (35%) of them were neutral, while (25%) rejected them.
  • (42%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “announcing the broadcast dates and abiding by them,” while the answers (30%) were neutral, and (27%) rejected them.
  • Approval of (50%) of the individuals in the study sample on the phrase “re-broadcasting educational materials more than once,” while the answers of (30%) were neutral, and (20%) rejected it.
  • (40%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed on the phrase “qualifying teachers of the educational subject to deal with technology.” The answers of (34%) were neutral, while (26%) rejected it.
  • Approval of (69%) of the respondents in the study sample on the phrase “the need to improve Internet services,” while the answers of (19%) were neutral, and (13%) rejected it.
  • (62%) of the study sample agreed on the phrase “increasing the number of technological means used in the field of distance education,” while the answers of (30%) were neutral, while (8%) rejected it.
  • (51%) of the individuals in the study sample agreed with the phrase “increasing the respondents to inquiries,” while the answers (33%) of them were neutral, and (17%) rejected it.

With regard to teacher training, the educational institutions based on teacher preparation must bring about the educational innovation required to introduce society to the information age without a positive contribution by teachers and educators, so the teacher must be the leader of the educational revolution, because teacher negativity increases as the education technologies become more advanced and complicated unless It promises to contribute positively to the adaptation of technology to the realistic educational environment. In general, the use of technology in the educational process saves a lot of time and effort, as it has benefits in various aspects.

Therefore, it is necessary to take advantage of these methods and direct students and university professors to the importance of these means, which provides them with an integrated educational system along with the traditional system, and even complement it. And that by developing the curriculum and obliging both the professor and the student to a part of self-education in which he uses technology (). It is noted from these results that they agree with the findings of the study of Khalil Ibrahim Al-Saadat (2018 AD), regarding the necessity of the existence of educational aids and modern education technologies, including computers, the necessity of the presence of specialists and technicians to operate these means and devices, and the Cooperation of the Kingdom’s Universities in the process of financing education programs Mothers and housewives are exempt from tuition fees, and distance education programs are offered without tuition fees and with full funding from the University.

 

Third: Hypotheses of the study:

The first hypothesis: There is a statistically significant correlation between the intensity of () the individuals ’exposure to the educational content of communication technology and the assessment of () the Qatari state’s performance in developing that field:

  • The relationship between the intensity of individuals ’exposure to the educational content of communication technology and the evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in developing that field:

Table No. (8)

The relationship between the intensity of individuals ’exposure to the educational content of communication technology and the evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in developing that field.

 

indication Moral Chi-square value ([104]) Exposure intensity of educational content with communication technology                         Exposure

Intensity

Positive evaluation

 
Total Low medium High  
% Repetition % Repetition % Repetition % Repetition  
Function  

0.03

 

2.823

37 148 60 6 26 39 42.9 103 High
50.5 202 30 3 52 78 50.4 121 medium
12.5 50 10 1 22 33 6.6 16 Low
100 400 100 10 100 150 100 240 Total

 

 

The data of the previous table, related to examining the relationship between the intensity of individuals ’exposure to the educational content of communication technology, and the evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in developing that field indicate that:

 

  • (50%) of the study sample individuals with high exposure to educational content in communication technology have a positive average evaluation of the performance of the Qatari state in the field of distance education, and (43%) of these individuals who are highly exposed to that content have a high positive evaluation to evaluate the performance of the Qatari state. In the field of distance education, in addition, (7%) of these individuals rated them in the low range of the country’s performance in the field of distance education.
  • (52%) of the study sample individuals with moderate exposure to educational content in communication technology have a positive average evaluation of the performance of the Qatari state in the field of distance education, and (26%) of these individuals with high exposure to that content have a high positive evaluation to evaluate the performance of the Qatari state. In the field of distance education, moreover, 22% of these individuals have a low evaluation of the country’s performance in the field of distance education.
  • (60%) of the study sample individuals with low exposure to educational content in communication technology have a high positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari state in the field of distance education, and (30%) of these individuals with low exposure to that content have a positive average evaluation to evaluate the performance of the country In the field of distance education, in addition, 10% of these individuals have a low evaluation of the country’s performance in the field of distance education.
  • Using the (chi-square) test to find out the extent of a relationship between the intensity of exposure to the content of the distance education sector for communication technology and the evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in the distance education sector, it was found that there is a statistically significant relationship, where the value of (Chi square) was (2.823) ), And at a level of significance (0.03), which is a statistical function. As the value of (chi-square) is less than α = (0.05).

Based on the results of the first hypothesis tests, it can be said that there is a statistically significant correlation between the intensity of the study sample’s exposure to the educational content of communication technology and the evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in developing that field.

In light of this, it must be emphasized that educational technology is not a closed system. On the contrary, it follows the style of open systems, as it is able to absorb new information from other related systems, and it is also able to interact and adapt according to new circumstances.

The second hypothesis: There are statistically significant differences between the demographic variables of the individuals in the study sample (gender, age, education, and socio-economic level) and their evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in developing distance education:

  • The differences between the type of individuals, the study sample, and the evaluation of the country’s performance in developing distance education:

Table No. (9)

The differences between the type of individuals, the study sample, and the evaluation of the country’s performance in developing distance education

 

indication Moral Chi-square value ([105]) Type (gender)                          (gender)

Positive

evaluation

 
Total Males Females  
% Repetition % Repetition % Repetition  
Function  

0.02

 

4.633

39 156 42.5 89 35 67 High
49.7 199 47.3 99 52 100 medium
11.3 45 10 21 15.5 24 Low
100 400 100 209 100 191 Total

 

The results of the previous table, related to testing the differences between the type of individuals in the study sample and assessing the performance of the country in the development of distance education, indicate that:

  • (52%) of the female individuals in the study sample have an average positive evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in the distance education sector, (35%) of the female individuals in the study sample have a high positive evaluation for this performance, and (16%) of the female individuals Study sample, they have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • (47%) of the male individuals in the study sample have an average positive evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in the distance education sector, (43%) of the male individuals in the study sample have a high positive evaluation of this performance, and (10%) of the male individuals Study sample, they have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • Using the (chi-square) test to identify the extent of a relationship between the type of individuals in the field study sample and assessing the performance of the Qatari government in developing distance education, it was found that there are statistically significant correlational differences, as the value of (chi-square) reached (4.633). Significance level (0.02), which is a statistical function. As the value of (chi-square) is less than α = (0.05).
  • The differences between the ages of individuals, the study sample, and the evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in developing distance education:

Table No. (10)

The differences between the ages of the individuals, the study sample, and the evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in developing distance education

indication Moral Chi-square value ([106])   Age            (Age)

Positive

evaluation

Total Over 60 years old From 36 years to less than 60 years From 23 years to less than 35 years Males Less than 22 years old
% Repetition % Repetition % Repetition % Repetition % Repetition  
Function  

0.03

 

11.322

37.7 151 17.6 3 42.5 20 37.4 52 40 76 High
52 208 64.7 11 47.3 23 50.3 70 54.7 104 medium
10.2 41 17.6 3 10 11 12.2 17 5.2 10 Low
100 400 100 17 100 54 100 139 100 190 Total

 

The results of the previous table, which relate to testing the differences between the ages of individuals in the study sample and evaluating the performance of the Qatari state in developing distance education, indicate that:

  • (55%) of the individuals in the study sample in the category “less than 22 years old” have an average positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (40%) of the individuals in the study sample in the category “less than 22 years old” have a positive evaluation This performance is high, and (5%) of the study sample individuals in the category of “less than 22 years old” have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • (50%) of the individuals in the study sample in the category “from 23 years to less than 35 years” have an average positive evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in the distance education sector, (37%) of the individuals in the study sample category “from 23 years to less From 35 years old, they have a high positive evaluation of this performance, and (12%) of the study sample individuals in the category “from 23 years to less than 35 years old” have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  •  (43%) of the individuals in the study sample in the category “from 36 years to less than 60 years”, have an average positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (37%) of the individuals in the study sample category “from 36 years old to less.” From 60 years old, they have a high positive evaluation of this performance, and (20%) of the study sample individuals in the category “from 36 years old to less than 60 years old” have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • (65%) of the individuals in the study sample in the category “over 60 years old” have an average positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (18%) of the individuals in the study sample in the category “over 60 years old” have a positive evaluation This performance is high, and (18%) of the study sample individuals in the category “over 60 years old” have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • Using the (chi-square) test to identify the extent of differences between the age levels of the individuals in the field study sample and assessing the Qatari state’s performance in developing the distance education sector. And at the level of significance (0.03), which is a statistically significant. As the chi-square value is less than α = (0.05).
  • -The Differences Between the Educational Level of The Individuals of the Study Sample and their Evaluation of the Qatari state’s Performance in the Field of Developing Distance Education:

Table No. (11)

The differences between the educational level of the individuals of the study sample and their evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in the field of developing distance education

indication Moral Chi-square value ([107])   Age           Education

 

 

Positive

evaluation

Total  Undergraduate      graduate Above graduate
% Repetition % Repetition % Repetition % Repetition  
Non Function  

 

0.91

 

 

1.34

 

38.5 154 34.4 31 40.1 100 37.7 23 High
48.3 193 53.3 48 48.1 120 40.9 25 medium
13.3 53 12.2 11 11.6 29 21.3 13 Low
100 400 100 90 100 249 100 61 Total

 

The results of the previous table, which relate to testing the differences between the educational levels of the individuals in the study sample, and the evaluation of the country’s performance in developing distance education, indicate that:

  • (41%) of the individuals in the study sample in a category of “postgraduate” education, have an average positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (38%) of the individuals in the study sample in a category of “postgraduate” education, have a high positive evaluation for this. Performance, and (21%) of the respondents in the “postgraduate” education category have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  •  (48%) of the individuals in the study sample have a “university” education category, and have an average positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (40%) of the individuals in the study sample have a “university” education category, who have a high positive evaluation of this performance. And (12%) of the study sample individuals with a “university” education category have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • (53%) of the individuals in the study sample in a category of “undergraduate” education, have an average positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (34%) of the individuals in the study sample in a “university” education category have a high positive evaluation for this performance. And (12%) of the study sample individuals with a “university” education category have a low positive evaluation for that performance.
  • Using the (chi-square) test to find out the extent of a relationship between the educational levels of the individuals in the field study sample and their evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in developing the field of distance education, it was found that there were no statistically significant differences, as the value of (Chi square) was (1.34) , And at a significant level (0.91), which is not statistically significant. As the value of chi-square is greater than α = (0.05).

4- The differences between the socio-economic level of individuals and the evaluation of the Qatari state’s performance in the field of distance education:

Table No. (12)

The differences between the socio-economic level and the evaluation of the performance of the country in the field of distance education

indication Moral Chi-square value ([108])   Socio-Economic level           the level

 

Positive

evaluation

Total  Low      Medium High
% Repetition % Repetition % Repetition % Repetition  
Function  

 

0.45

 

 

4.212

38.7 155 26.3 5 20.5 25 48.2 125 High
34.5 138 52.6 10 19.7 24 40.1 104 medium
26.7 107 21 4 59.8 73 11.5 30 Low
100 400 100 19 100 122 100 259 Total

Table No. (11) data, related to examining the differences between the socio-economic level and evaluating the performance of the country in the field of distance education, indicate that:

  • (48%) of the study sample individuals with a high socio-economic level have a high positive evaluation of the performance of the Qatari government in the distance education sector, (40%) of the study sample individuals with a high socio-economic level have a moderate positive evaluation of this performance, and (12%) of the study sample individuals with a high socio-economic level have a low positive evaluation of that performance.
  • (60%) of the study sample individuals with an average socio-economic level have a low positive evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in the distance education sector, (21%) of the study sample individuals with a low socio-economic level have a high positive evaluation of that performance, and (20%) of the study sample individuals with an average socioeconomic level have a medium positive evaluation of those efforts.
  • (53%) of the study sample individuals with a low socio-economic level have a positive average evaluation of the Qatari government’s performance in the distance education sector, (26%) of the study sample individuals with a low socio-economic level have a high positive evaluation of that performance, and (21%) of the study sample individuals with a low socioeconomic level have a low positive evaluation of this performance.
  • Using the (chi-square) test to find out the extent of a relationship between the socio-economic level of the individuals in the field study sample and their positive attitudes towards the January Revolution, it was revealed that there is no statistically significant relationship, as the value of (Chi Square) reached (4.212), and at a significant level (0.45) It is not statistically significant. As the value of (chi-square) is greater than α = (0.05).

In general, after carrying out previous statistical tests; It can be said that there are statistically significant differences between the demographic variables of the individuals in the study sample (gender, age, education, and socio-economic level) and their assessment of the Qatari state’s performance in developing distance education.

This result can be explained in the light of several challenges facing the educational process in the entire Arab world and not in Qatar, in addition to the high costs and teacher training capabilities. The Corona pandemic imposed itself as an emergency situation in the Arab world, which forced everyone to learn from home, and therefore future planning processes for that type of education must increase alongside traditional education, so that it can be improved and improved, until the day comes that is completely relied upon as an alternative Traditional education. This result is consistent with the findings of Iman Ezz El-Din (2017), regarding the existence of a statistically significant relationship between the student’s educational system and the evaluation of the educational level (formal – open).

This result differs from Khalil Al-Saadat (2018) ([109]), which concluded that there are no statistically significant differences in the total score of each axis between the study sample according to age, social status, presence of children, employment status, educational level, and gender.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Foreign  Sources  and References:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Reem Abdullah. “The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Developing Research Writing Skills for Female Students of the E-Learning Diploma at Princess Noura Bint Abdul Rahman University and the level of satisfaction towards it (Sohag University, College of Education, Educational Magazine, Issue 74, June 2020)

[2] Reem Naguib Zenati, “High school students’ use of social media and its reflection on their perception of education issues in Egypt, ”Journal of Journalism Research, Vol. 2018, page 502-475.

[3]Khalil Ibrahim Al-Saadat. “The possibility of using distance education in the programs of the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at King Faisal University in Al-Ahsa” Damascus University Journal, Volume 12, Issue 1, College of Education, Department of Education, King Saud University 2018).

[4]Alya Reda Abdel-Azim. “Application of Distance Learning in Document and Archive Programs: The Electronic Archive Program with Open Education” Unpublished Master Thesis (Cairo, Cairo University, College of Arts, Department of Libraries, Documentation and Information 2018).

[5]Iman Nour El-Din. “Effectiveness of traditional and electronic educational communication techniques: a comparative study between students of open and formal education, governmental and private education,” an unpublished master’s thesis (Cairo, Cairo University, Faculty of Information, Department of Radio and Television 2017).

[6]Hamsa Abdul Wahab Farid. Cloud Computing and E-Learning – An Analytical Study, ”International Journal of Internet Education, Research Paper, Technology and Human Development Association, December 2017, pp. 97: 122.

[7]Heba Mohammed Abdul Latif. “The Interaction between an Electronic course and a Multimedia forum and its Impact on the Development of Learning Outcomes for Students of the General Diploma in Education Division of Distance Education” Unpublished PhD thesis (Cairo, Cairo University, Graduate School of Education, Department of Educational Technology 2017).

[8] Robinson, R.,Molenda, M., & Rezabek, L. (2016). Facilitating learning.In A.Januszewsk& M.

[9]Moataz Ahmed Abdel Fattah. “The Impact of Technological Developments in Supporting Experiences of Local Media Projects on the Internet and Their Ability to Compete with the Main News Websites” Unpublished PhD Thesis (Cairo University, Faculty of Mass Communication, Department of Journalism 2020 AD)

[10]Hoda Kamel. “The Role of E-Learning in Classroom Administration” The Arab Foundation for Education, Science and Arts, Arab Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, March 2019, Issue 8,

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[11]Awatef Ibrahim Mohamed. “The Use of Information Technology Information Technology in Distance Education: A Case Study of the University of Khartoum Mechanism for Distance Study” Supplementary Research for a Bachelor’s Degree, Sudan, University of Khartoum, College of Arts, Department of Information and Libraries 2019 AD.

[12]Sally Ahmed. “The Role of Social Media sites in Educating University Youth to use Modern Technology in Education,” Journal of Journalism Research, College of Mass Communication, Vol. 2018, Issue 16, Page 65-130

(2) Alia Reda Abdel Azim. “Application of Distance Learning in Document and Archive Programs: The Electronic Archive Program with Open Education” Unpublished Master Thesis (Cairo University, College of Arts, Department of Libraries, Documentation and Information 2018).

 

[13]Latifa Ali, “Employing Information and Communication Technology in E-Learning,” Al-Hikma Magazine for Media and Communication Studies, Issue 9, pp. 59: 74, 2017 AD.

[14]Karim Awwad Brism. The Effectiveness of a Training Program Using Visual Communication Technology to develop Methods of Field Training in the Faculties of Basic Education in Iraq, “Unpublished PhD Thesis (League of Arab States, (Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science)), Institute for Arab Research and Studies – Department of Education – Educational Technology 2017.

Atef Ali Al-Abd. The Scientific Approach in Media Research (Cairo: Dar Al-Hani, 2000 AD), p.15. ([15])

([16])Susanna Hornig Priest ,Doing Media Research: An Introduction,(California: Sage Publication,2010),P.29.

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2 Yaqoub Hassan Nashwan / Department of Distance Education and Open University Education / Dar Al-Furqan / Amman / 2018 AD.

 

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([22])Tayseer Zaid Kilani. Globalization and Distance Education. Afaq Magazine, Cairo, The Arab Network for Open and Distance Learning, No. 9, January 2001, pp. 7-8.

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[25]  Nahed Jada. Previous reference . P. 85.

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[27]  Jacob Nashwan. Studies on the Production of Educational Materials for Distance Education Programs (Published by the Islamic Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization, 2000 AD), p. 211.

[28] fldlc.org ,UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT BEHIND VARIOUS FORMS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION , 05/09/2020

[29]  Ibrahim Al Muhaisen and Khadija Hashem. Distance higher education using the international information network. A scientific paper presented to the third conference for teacher preparation, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Umm Al-Qura University, College of Education, 2002 AD, pg 201

 

[30]  Mohamed Nabil Al-Atrouzi. E-learning: One of the models for distance education. A paper on distance university education: a future vision, the ninth annual national conference, Cairo, Ain Shams University, December 2002, p. 196.

 

[31] fldlc.org ,UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT BEHIND VARIOUS FORMS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION , 05/09/2020

[32] Nabil Ali. Previous Peference. P. 393.

[33]  Muhammad Al-Hadi. Previous Reference. P. 167.

[34]  Hashem Abdel Wahab. Previous Reference. P. 229.

[35]  Hamida bint Obaid Al Subaihi. “Open e-learning platforms: what they are and their work with designing a guide for open education platforms on the Internet.” Saadia Library and Information Association, Vol. 16, No. 17, January 206, p. 15.

[36]  Abdul Hamid Hindawi. Previous Reference. P 211.

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[38]  Maha Goeli. Previous reference. Pp. 320.

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[41] Stephen Anzallon. Distance education: an option to improve the quality of secondary education and face its increase. The Arab Center for Education and Development, translated: Faten Muhammad Abdel Moneim, Vol. 14, No. 49, January 2008, p. 201.

[42]  Nabil Gad Azmy. Previous Reference. P. 24.

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[44]  Armando Villarroil. Distance Education Project Planning. Futures Magazine, Volume 18, No. 1, 1988, p. 58.

([45])Hussam Al-Din Muhammad Mazen Teaching and Teaching Means and Technology (Cairo: House of Science and Faith, 2009 AD), p. 217.

([46])Faryal Muhanna. Renewing the E-Learning System From the Viewpoint of Damascus University Students. Journal of Media Research, Damascus University, College of Mass Communication, Department of Journalism, Damascus: Volume 7, Issue 4, December 4, 2006 AD, Page 112.

([47])Walid Salem Mohammed Al-Khalafawi. Educational Technology Innovations in the Information Age (Amman: Zarqa House for Distribution and Publishing, 2006 AD), p. 126.

([48])Abdul Azim Al-Farjani. Previous Reference. P. 60.

([49])Alvin Toffler. Knowledge, Wealth and Violence at the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century. Translation: Lubna Al-Zaidi (Cairo: The Egyptian General Book Authority, 1995) pp. 37, 38.

([50])Hamid Ammar. Studies in Education and Culture among the Problems of the Educational Process (Cairo: Arab House Book Library, 1996), p. 132.

([51])Abdul Halim Faleh Albab. Previous Reference. P. 119.

([52])Alaa El Din Mohamed Fahmy. “Digital Libraries, New Tools for Education in the Information Age”. The Fourth Scientific Conference on Information Systems and Computer Technology entitled: Towards the Development of Arab Electronic Information Sources to Meet the Civilization Challenge in the period from December 10 to 12, Cairo, Academic Library, 1997 AD, p. 105.

([53])Benjamin Barber. The confrontation between adaptation and globalization. Translation: Ahmed Mahmoud (Cairo: Dar Al-Amal and Al-Nour, 1998 AD), P.94.

([54])Serge Profilip Bertrand. Communication revolution. Translated by: Hala Abdel Raouf (Cairo: Dar Al-Mustaqbal Al-Arabi, 1993 AD), p. 226.

([55])Bill Gates. Get work done at lightning speed. Translation: Ali Saleh Al-Khabti (Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Education, 1999 AD) p.57.

([56])Maha Al-Juwaili. Previous Reference. P. 309.

([57]) عبدالحافظ سلامة. الاتصال وتكنولوجيا التعليم والمعلومات (عمان: دار البازوري العلمية للنشر والتوزيع، 2004م) ص102.

([58])Mohammed Attia Khamis. Technical Specifications for the Success of Using Television as an Educational Means of Communication in Public Education in Egypt. Unpublished MA Thesis (Cairo: Ain Shams University, Girls College, Department of Educational Technology, 2001 AD), p.209.

([59])Hossam El Din Muhammad Mazen, Teaching and Learning Means and Technology (Cairo, House of Science and Faith, 2nd Edition, 2009 AD), p.302.

([60])Hussam Al-Din Muhammad Mazen Previous Reference. Pp. 69-72.

([61])Shaker Mohamed Fathy and others. Previous Reference. P 153.

([62])Hussein Hamdi Al-Tobji. Previous Reference. Pp. 50-51.

([63])Mohamed Mahmoud Al-Hela. Educational Technology between Theory and Practice (Amman, Dar Al-Masirah, 2004) p.309.

([64])Nadine William Al-Kloob. Technology and the Process of Education  (Beirut: Dar Al-Kawakeb Publishing and Distribution, 2009 AD), p. 250.

([65])Hanan Youssef. Media in Educational and Educational Institutions (Cairo, Dar Al-Sebaei for Publishing and Distribution, 2006), p. 43, p. 44.

([66])Ibrahim Ismat Mutawa. Previous Peference. P. 31.

([67])  Mandour Abdul Salam. Previous Reference. P 109.

([68])  Mohamed Mahmoud Al-Hela. Previous Reference. Pp. 113-114.

([69])Hussam Al-Din Muhammad Mazen Previous Reference. Pp. 400-402.

[70] Nada Abdel Qader Mansour. Education in Qatar: The Complex Reality of Citizen Satisfaction, 2017.

[71] https://www.ts3a.com/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%85-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D9%82%D8%B7%D8%B1/

 

[72] Muhammad Al-Khulaifi. Where is our education system going? Al-Raya newspaper 4 and 6 October

[73] Badria Mubarak Al-Ammari. Attempts to Reform Education in the State of Qatar – Western Hurricanes or Silk Ribbons Abdullah Jumah Al-Kubaisi The Educational System in the State of Qatar – Education for a new Phase

[74] – Mohammed Hilal Al-Khulaifi. Where is our education system going? Al-Raya Newspaper. 4 and 1 October.

(1) Qatar National Development Strategy 0277-0271 Education Sector Strategy.

([75])Wael Abdel Hamid El-Sherbiny. The Proposed Method for Developing Loyalty and Belonging Among Egyptian Youth and its Impact on Egyptian National Security. Research the National Defense College Leave Fellowship. The 43rd National Defense Course, Cairo, National Defense College, Nasser Higher Military Academy, 2014 AD.

([76])The Distance Education Sector Arose in the Late Seventies in Some European and American Universities, as Students used to take their Educational Needs (Books, Strips tapes, Video Tapes) by Mail, and then Students Would View and Study them Well, and in the Same Way the Students Interacted with the Assignments, as they Were. These Institutions Require Students to take the Final Exam at the University in order to Calculate the Full Marks.

([77])France is one of the Countries that Fall Under this Pattern and has Taken its Means in Preparing for the Information Age in Schools and Institutes, and has paid Special Attention to Preparing Remote Teachers. For Detail See: Maha Goeli. Previous Reference. 1997 AD Pp. 320.

([78])What is Meant by educational Means: “The Tools, Devices, or Materials that the Teacher uses with his Pupils in educational Situations to Achieve Specific Goals, whether these Tools were Designed and prepared by the teacher or were pre-prepared and prepared, and whether they were complex or Simplified and prepared from some Tools, Materials and Local Capabilities:

Hamada Muhammad Masoud Ibrahim and Ibrahim Yusef Muhammad Mahmoud. Educational Technology and Technological Innovations (Cairo: Al-Azhar University, College of Education, 2009 AD), p.74

([79])It is noteworthy that this Question was the main Criterion for Completing the Survey Questions with the Individuals of the Study sample, as that Question was asked to (532) Respondents, and (132) Respondents were excluded whose Answers did not meet the Truth, and thus the original Number became (400) Respondents who answered yes to That Question; Accordingly, Investigation Procedures were Completed with them.

([80])Reem Naguib Zenati. Previous Reference. Pp. 201.

([81])Kholoud Abdullah. Previous Reference. 292.

([82])Hana Hussein Qarni. Previous Reference. P. 248.

([83])Ghada Mamdouh. The Role of TV Channels and New Media in Shaping Critical Skills Towards Democratic Practice in Egypt. Unpublished PhD thesis (Cairo: Cairo University, Faculty of Mass Communication, Department of Radio and Television, 2017 AD) P. 255.

([84])Ghada Mamdouh. Previous Reference. P. 261.

([85])Hassan Ali Qasim. Previous Reference. P. 237.

([86])Safa Mahmoud Othman. The specialized Arab news Channels’ Treatment of Current Political Events and the Attitudes of the Egyptian Elites Towards them. Unpublished PhD thesis. (Cairo: Cairo University, Faculty of Information, Department of Radio and Television, 2007 AD) p. 311.

([87])400 Respondents Answered that Question, after Restricting the Individuals’ Answers to the Study Sample.

([88])Nabil Ali. Previous Reference. P. 269.

([89])Nabil Gad Azmy. Previous Reference. P. 194.

([90])Sally Ahmed. Previous Reference. P. 242.

([91])Mahitab Jamal Abdul Salam. The Motives of University Youth’s use of Educational YouTube Clips for Self-Education and the Gratifications Achieved. Unpublished MA Thesis (Cairo: Cairo University, Faculty of Mass Communication, Department of Radio and Television, 2018 AD) P.232.

Kholoud Abdullah. Previous reference. P. 289. ([92])

([93])Laman Muhammad. Previous reference. P. 243.

([94])Zainab Ibrahim. The Effectiveness of Content Presentation Tools Based on Electronic Communication Applications in Developing the Skills of Employing some Technological Innovations Among Students of Educational Technology and their Attitudes towards them. Unpublished PhD Thesis (Cairo: Cairo University, Graduate School of Education, Department of Educational Technology, 2013 AD) p. 221.

([95])Hussam Al-Din Muhammad Mazen Means and technology of teaching and learning, previous reference. Pp. 69-72.

([96])Nada Abdel Qader Mansour. Education in Qatar: The Complex Reality of Citizen Satisfaction. Previous reference. P. 209.

([97])Reem Abdullah. Previous Reference.

([98])Khalil Ibrahim Al Saadat. Previous Reference. P 224.

([99])Hussein Hamdi Al-Tobji. Didactic Educational Technologies. Previous Reference. Pp. 50-51.

([100])Sally Ahmed Gad. The Role of Social Networking sites in Educating University Youth to use Modern Technology in Education. In the Scientific Journal of Radio and Television Research, No. 16, October-December 2018, p.50.

([101])Muhammad Muhammad Al-Hadi. Previous Reference. 1997 AD P. 65.

([102])Karim Awwad Brism. Previous Reference. P 254.

([103]) Robinson, R.,Molenda, M., & Rezabek. Op.Cit. p.105.

([104])Chi-square test: It is a statistical Test used to Study the Relationship between two Descriptive Variables (Qualitative), and for Judgment we Look at the Significance Value if it is Greater than (0.05) we can Judge that there is no Relationship between the two Variables, and if it is Less than (0.05), we can Judge that there is A Relationship between the two Variables.

([105])Chi-square test: It is a statistical Test used to Study the Relationship between two Descriptive Variables (Qualitative), and for Judgment we Look at the Significance Value if it is Greater than (0.05) we can Judge that there is no Relationship between the two Variables, and if it is Less than (0.05), we can Judge that there is A Relationship between the two Variables.

([106])Chi-square test: It is a statistical Test used to Study the Relationship between two Descriptive Variables (Qualitative), and for Judgment we Look at the Significance Value if it is Greater than (0.05) we can Judge that there is no Relationship between the two Variables, and if it is Less than (0.05), we can Judge that there is A Relationship between the two Variables.

([107])Chi-square test: It is a statistical Test used to Study the Relationship between two Descriptive Variables (Qualitative), and for Judgment we Look at the Significance Value if it is Greater than (0.05) we can Judge that there is no Relationship between the two Variables, and if it is Less than (0.05), we can Judge that there is A Relationship between the two Variables.

([108])Chi-square test: It is a statistical Test used to Study the Relationship between two Descriptive Variables (Qualitative), and for Judgment we Look at the Significance Value if it is Greater than (0.05) we can Judge that there is no Relationship between the two Variables, and if it is Less than (0.05), we can Judge that there is A Relationship between the two Variables.

([109])Khalil Ibrahim Al Saadat. Previous Reference. P. 249

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